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Cultural representations

A 19th-century depiction

After her death, increasingly fanciful and romanticized representations were produced about Pocahontas, in which she and Smith are frequently portrayed as romantically involved. Contemporaneous sources, however, substantiate claims of their friendship but not romance.[45] The first claim of their romantic involvement was in John Davis' Travels in the United States of America (1803).[72]

Stage

Commemorations

Film

Films about Pocahontas include:

Literature

Art

Others

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Stebbins, Sarah J (August 2010). "Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend". National Park Service. U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved April 7, 2015.
  2. ^ a b "A Guide to Writing about Virginia Indians and Virginia Indian History" (PDF). Commonwealth of Virginia, Virginia Council on Indians. January 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 24, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  3. ^ Karenne Wood, ed., The Virginia Indian Heritage Trail Archived July 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Charlottesville, VA: Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 2007.
  4. ^ "Pocahontas". Historic Jamestowne. Preservation Virginia. Archived from the original on April 4, 2012. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
  5. ^ Rose, E.M. (2020). "Did Squanto meet Pocahontas, and What Might they have Discussed?". The Junto. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  6. ^ a b Price, pp. 243–244
  7. ^ Shapiro, Laurie Gwen (June 22, 2014). "Pocahontas: Fantasy and Reality". Slate. The Slate Group. Retrieved April 7, 2015.
  8. ^ Smith, True Relation Archived September 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, p. 93.
  9. ^ a b c d Smith."John Smith's 1616 Letter to Queen Anne of Great Britain". Digital History. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
  10. ^ Huber, Margaret Williamson (January 12, 2011)."Powhatan (d. 1618)" Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  11. ^ Spelman, Relation. 1609.
  12. ^ Stebbins, Sarah J (August 2010). "Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend". National Park Service. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  13. ^ Linwood., Custalow (2007). The true story of Pocahontas : the other side of history. Daniel, Angela L. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Pub. ISBN 9781555916329. OCLC 560587311.
  14. ^ Strachey, William (1849) [composed c. 1612]. The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia. London: Hakluyt Society. p. 111. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  15. ^ Rountree, Helen C. (November 3, 2010). "Cooking in Early Virginia Indian Society". Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
  16. ^ a b Strachey, Historie, p. 65
  17. ^ Stith, William (1865). "The History of the First Discovery and Settlement of Virginia". archive.org. p. 136. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
  18. ^ Rountree, Helen C. (November 3, 2010) "Uses of Personal Names by Early Virginia Indians". Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  19. ^ Waldron, William Watson. Pocahontas, American Princess: and Other Poems (New York: Dean and Trevett, 1841), p. 8.
  20. ^ Hamor, True Discourse. p. 802.
  21. ^ a b Rountree, Helen C. (January 25, 2011). "Pocahontas (d. 1617)". Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
  22. ^ Lemay, J. A. Leo. Did Pocahontas Save Captain John Smith? Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press, 1992, p. 25. See also Birchfield, 'Did Pocahontas' Archived June 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ "Smith, A True Relation". Mith2.umd.edu. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
  24. ^ Huber, Margaret Williamson (January 12, 2010). "Powhatan (d. 1618)". Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  25. ^ "Smith, Generall Historie, p. 49". Docsouth.unc.edu. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
  26. ^ Karen Ordahl Kupperman, The Jamestown Project, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007, 51–60, 125–6
  27. ^ Gleach, Powhatan's World, pp. 118–121.
  28. ^ Karen Ordahl Kupperman, Indians and English, pp. 114, 174.
  29. ^ Smith, General History, p. 152.
  30. ^ Smith, Generall Historie, 261.
  31. ^ Early Images of Virginia Indians: Invented Scenes for Narratives. Archived December 22, 2010, at the Wayback Machine Virginia Historical Society. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
  32. ^ Fausz, J. Frederick. "An 'Abundance of Blood Shed on Both Sides': England's First Indian War, 1609–1614". The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 98:1 (January 1990), pp. 3ff.
  33. ^ a b Rountree, Helen C. (December 8, 2010). "Pocahontas (d. 1617)". Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  34. ^ Argall, Letter to Nicholas Hawes. p. 754; Rountree, Helen C. (December 8, 2010). "Pocahontas (d. 1617)". Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  35. ^ Hamor, True Discourse, p. 804.
  36. ^ Rountree, Helen C. (December 8, 2010). "Pocahontas (d. 1617)". Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
  37. ^ "Pocahontas", V28, Virginia Highway Historical Markers, accessed September 17, 2009
  38. ^ Dale, Letter to 'D.M.', p. 843–844.
  39. ^ Custalow, Dr. Linwood "Little Bear"; Daniel, Angela L. "Silver Star" (2007). The True Story of Pocahontas: The Other Side of History. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing. pp. 43, 47, 51, 89. ISBN 9781555916329. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
  40. ^ Deyo, William "Night Owl" (September 5, 2009). "Our Patawomeck Ancestors" (PDF). Patawomeck Tides. 12 (1): 2–7. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
  41. ^ Strachey, Historie, p. 54
  42. ^ Warner, Charles Dudley (October 31, 2012) [first published 1881]. The Story of Pocahontas. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
  43. ^ Rolfe. Letter to Thomas Dale. p. 851.
  44. ^ Editors, History com. "John Rolfe". HISTORY.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  45. ^ a b "Pocahontas: Her Life and Legend – Historic Jamestowne Part of Colonial National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
  46. ^ Hamor. True Discourse. p. 809.
  47. ^ Robert S. Tilton, Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative (Cambridge: CUP, 1994), p. 18
  48. ^ PBS, Race – The Power of an Illusion > Race Timeline
  49. ^ Price, Love and Hate. p. 163.
  50. ^ "Biography: Pocahontas—Born, 1594—Died, 1617". The Family Magazine. New York: Redfield & Lindsay. 4: 90. 1837. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
  51. ^ Dale. Letter to Sir Ralph Winwood. p. 878.
  52. ^ a b c d Smith, General History. p. 261.
  53. ^ Purchas, Hakluytus Posthumus. Vol. 19 p. 118.
  54. ^ Smith, Generall Historie, p. 261.
  55. ^ Qtd. in Herford and Simpson, eds. Ben Jonson, vol. 10, 568–569
  56. ^ Purchas, Hakluytus Posthumus, Vol. 19, p. 118
  57. ^ Price, Love and Hate. p. 182.
  58. ^ Dr. Linwood "Little Bear" Custalow and Angela L. Danieal "Silver Star", The True Story of Pocahontas: The Other Side of History
  59. ^ Rolfe. Letter to Edwin Sandys. p. 71.
  60. ^ Anon. "Entry in the Gravesend St. George composite parish register recording the burial of Princess Pocahontas on 21 March 1616/1617". Medway: City Ark Document Gallery. Medway Council. Retrieved September 17, 2009.
  61. ^ "Pocahontas". St. George's, Gravesend. Archived from the original on February 13, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  62. ^ "Virginia Indians Festival: reports and pictures". Archived from the original on March 14, 2009. Retrieved July 13, 2006.
  63. ^ "John Rolfe". History.com. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
  64. ^ Yorktown, Mailing Address: P. O. Box 210; Us, VA 23690 Phone:856-1200 Contact. "Thomas Rolfe - Historic Jamestowne Part of Colonial National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov.
  65. ^ a b c John Frederick Dorman, Adventurers of Purse and Person, 4th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 23–36.
  66. ^ Henrico County Deeds & Wills 1697–1704, p. 96
  67. ^ "Postage Stamps – Postal Facts".
  68. ^ "Virginia Women in History". Lva.virginia.gov. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
  69. ^ Heim, Joe (July 2, 2015). "A renowned Virginia Indian tribe finally wins federal recognition". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  70. ^ "A First Lady's Princess Complex: Royalty, Racism & Edith Wilson's Pocahontas Blood". First Ladies. Retrieved July 14, 2019.
  71. ^ "Family Tree Shows Senator Jeanne Shaheen is Direct Descendant of Pocahontas – Indian Country Media Network". indiancountrymedianetwork.com.
  72. ^ a b Tilton. Pocahontas. pp. 35, 41.
  73. ^ Haimann, Alexander T. "Jamestown Exposition Issue". Arago: People, postage & the post. National Postal Museum online.
  74. ^ "The New World". IMBD. January 20, 2005. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  75. ^ Kevin Porter (November 2016). "Thanksgiving Day Film: 'Pocahontas: Dove of Peace' Reveals Christian Life of 'Emissary Between 2 Nations'". The Christian Post.
  76. ^ "St. George's Church website (accessed 16 June 2017)". Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2017.

Bibliography

Further reading

External links


NiNa.Az » Free Services » Wikipedia
Pocahontas Language Watch Edit This article is about the historical person For the film see Pocahontas 1995 film For the Disney character see Pocahontas character For other uses see Pocahontas disambiguation Matoaka Princess Matoika and Rebecca Rolfe redirect here For the American towns see Matoaca Virginia and Matoaka West Virginia For the transport ship see USS Princess Matoika For the Irish cricketer see Rebecca Rolfe cricketer Pocahontas US ˌ p oʊ k e ˈ h ɒ n t e s UK ˌ p ɒ k born Amonute known as Matoaka c 1596 March 1617 was a Native American 2 3 4 woman belonging to the Powhatan People notable for her association with the colonial settlement at Jamestown Virginia She was the daughter of Powhatan the paramount chief 2 of a network of tributary tribes in the Tsenacommacah encompassing the Tidewater region of Virginia PocahontasPortrait engraving by Simon de Passe 1616BornAmonute later known as Matoaka c 1596 1 Werowocomoco Tsenacommacah present day Gloucester County VirginiaDiedMarch 1617 aged 20 21 Gravesend Kent Kingdom of EnglandResting placeSt George s Church GravesendOther namesRebecca RolfeKnown forAssociation with Jamestown colony saving the life of John Smith and as a Powhatan convert to ChristianityTitlePrincess MatoakaSpouse s John Rolfe m 1614 wbr ChildrenThomas RolfeParent s Wahunsenacawh Chief Powhatan father Pocahontas was captured and held for ransom by the Colonists during hostilities in 1613 During her captivity she was encouraged to convert to Christianity and was baptized under the name Rebecca She married tobacco planter John Rolfe in April 1614 aged about 17 or 18 and she bore their son Thomas Rolfe in January 1615 1 In 1616 the Rolfes travelled to London where Pocahontas was presented to English society as an example of the civilized savage in hopes of stimulating investment in the Jamestown settlement On this trip she may have met Squanto a Patuxet Indian from New England 5 She became something of a celebrity was elegantly feted and attended a masque at Whitehall Palace In 1617 the Rolfes set sail for Virginia but Pocahontas died at Gravesend of unknown causes aged 20 or 21 She was buried in St George s Church Gravesend in England but her grave s exact location is unknown because the church was rebuilt after a fire destroyed it 1 Numerous places landmarks and products in the United States have been named after Pocahontas Her story has been romanticized over the years with some aspects which are probably fictional Many of the stories told about her by John Smith have been contested by her documented descendants 6 She is a subject of art literature and film and many famous people have claimed to be among her descendants through her son including members of the First Families of Virginia First Lady Edith Wilson American Western actor Glenn Strange and astronomer Percival Lowell 7 Contents 1 Early life 1 1 Names 1 2 Title and status 2 Interactions with the colonists 2 1 John Smith 2 2 Capture 2 3 Possible first marriage 2 4 Marriage to John Rolfe 2 5 England 3 Death 4 Legacy 5 Cultural representations 5 1 Stage 5 2 Commemorations 5 3 Film 5 4 Literature 5 5 Art 5 6 Others 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 Further reading 10 External linksEarly lifePocahontas s birth year is unknown but some historians estimate it to have been around 1596 1 In A True Relation of Virginia 1608 Smith described meeting Pocahontas in the spring of 1608 when she was a child of ten years old 8 In a 1616 letter he again described her as she was in 1608 but this time as a child of twelve or thirteen years of age 9 Pocahontas was the daughter of Chief Powhatan paramount chief of Tsenacommacah an alliance of about 30 Algonquian speaking groups and petty chiefdoms in Tidewater Virginia 10 Her mother s name and origin are unknown but she was probably of lowly status Henry Spelman of Jamestown had lived among the Powhatan as an interpreter and he noted that when one of the paramount chief s many wives gave birth she was returned to her place of origin and supported there by the paramount chief until she found another husband 11 However little is known about Pocahontas s mother and it has been theorized that she died in childbirth 12 The Mattaponi Reservation people are descendants of the Powhatans and their oral tradition claims that Pocahontas s mother was the first wife of Powhatan and that Pocahontas was named after her 13 Names According to colonist William Strachey Pocahontas was a childhood nickname meaning little wanton 14 some interpret the meaning as playful one 15 In his account Strachey describes her as a child visiting the fort at Jamestown and playing with the young boys she would get the boys forth with her into the marketplace and make them wheel falling on their hands turning up their heels upwards whom she would follow and wheel so herself naked as she was all the fort over 16 Historian William Stith claimed that her real name it seems was originally Matoax which the Indians carefully concealed from the English and changed it to Pocahontas out of a superstitious fear lest they by the knowledge of her true name should be enabled to do her some hurt 17 According to anthropologist Helen C Rountree Pocahontas revealed her secret name to the colonists only after she had taken another religious baptismal name of Rebecca 18 Title and status Pocahontas is frequently viewed as a princess in popular culture In 1841 William Watson Waldron of Trinity College Dublin published Pocahontas American Princess and Other Poems calling her the beloved and only surviving daughter of the king 19 She was her father s delight and darling according to colonist Captain Ralph Hamor 20 but she was not in line to inherit a position as a weroance sub chief or mamanatowick paramount chief Instead Powhatan s brothers and sisters and his sisters children all stood in line to succeed him 21 In his A Map of Virginia John Smith explained how matrilineal inheritance worked among the Powhatans His kingdom descendeth not to his sonnes nor children but first to his brethren whereof he hath three namely Opitchapan Opechanncanough and Catataugh and after their decease to his sisters First to the eldest sister then to the rest and after them to the heires male and female of the eldest sister but never to the heires of the males Interactions with the colonistsJohn Smith Pocahontas saves the life of John Smith in this chromolithograph credited to the New England Chromo Lith Company around 1870 The scene is idealized there are no mountains in Tidewater Virginia for example and the Powhatans lived in thatched houses rather than tipis Pocahontas is most famously linked to colonist Captain John Smith who arrived in Virginia with 100 other settlers in April 1607 where they built a fort on a marshy peninsula on the James River The colonists had numerous encounters over the next several months with the people of Tsenacommacah some of them friendly some hostile A hunting party led by Powhatan s close relative Opechancanough then captured Smith in December 1607 while he was exploring on the Chickahominy River and brought him to Powhatan s capital at Werowocomoco In his 1608 account Smith describes a great feast followed by a long talk with Powhatan He does not mention Pocahontas in relation to his capture and claims that they first met some months later 22 23 Margaret Huber suggests that Powhatan was attempting to bring Smith and the other colonists under his own authority He offered Smith rule of the town of Capahosic which was close to his capital at Werowocomoco as he hoped to keep Smith and his men nearby and better under control 24 In 1616 Smith wrote a letter to Queen Anne of Denmark in anticipation of Pocahontas s visit to England In this new account his capture included the threat of his own death at the minute of my execution she hazarded the beating out of her own brains to save mine and not only that but so prevailed with her father that I was safely conducted to Jamestown 9 He expanded on this in his 1624 Generall Historie published long after the death of Pocahontas He explained that he was captured and taken to the paramount chief where two great stones were brought before Powhatan then as many as could layd hands on him Smith dragged him to them and thereon laid his head and being ready with their clubs to beate out his braines Pocahontas the Kings dearest daughter when no intreaty could prevaile got his head in her armes and laid her owne upon his to save him from death 25 Karen Ordahl Kupperman suggests that Smith used such details to embroider his first account thus producing a more dramatic second account of his encounter with Pocahontas as a heroine worthy of Queen Anne s audience She argues that its later revision and publication was Smith s attempt to raise his own stock and reputation as he had fallen from favor with the London Company which had funded the Jamestown enterprise 26 Anthropologist Frederic W Gleach suggests that Smith s second account was substantially accurate but represents his misunderstanding of a three stage ritual intended to adopt him into the confederacy 27 28 but not all writers are convinced some suggesting the absence of certain corroborating evidence 6 Early histories did establish that Pocahontas befriended Smith and the Jamestown colony She often went to the settlement and played games with the boys there 16 When the colonists were starving every once in four or five days Pocahontas with her attendants brought him Smith so much provision that saved many of their lives that else for all this had starved with hunger 29 As the colonists expanded their settlement the Powhatans felt that their lands were threatened and conflicts arose again In late 1609 an injury from a gunpowder explosion forced Smith to return to England for medical care and the colonists told the Powhatans that he was dead Pocahontas believed that account and stopped visiting Jamestown but she learned that he was living in England when she traveled there with her husband John Rolfe 30 Capture The abduction of Pocahontas 1619 by Johann Theodor de Bry depicting a full narrative Starting in the lower left Pocahontas center is deceived by weroance Iopassus who holds a copper kettle as bait and his wife who pretends to cry At center right Pocahontas is put on the boat and feasted In the background the action moves from the Potomac to the York River where negotiations fail to trade a hostage and the colonists attack and burn an Indian village 31 Pocahontas s capture occurred in the context of the First Anglo Powhatan War a conflict between the Jamestown settlers and the Indians which began late in the summer of 1609 32 In the first years of war the colonists took control of the James River both at its mouth and at the falls Captain Samuel Argall in the meantime pursued contacts with Indian tribes in the northern portion of Powhatan s paramount chiefdom The Patawomecks lived on the Potomac River and were not always loyal to Powhatan and living with them was a young English interpreter named Henry Spelman In March 1613 Argall learned that Pocahontas was visiting the Patawomeck village of Passapatanzy and living under the protection of the Weroance Iopassus also known as Japazaws 33 With Spelman s help translating Argall pressured Iopassus to assist in Pocahontas s capture by promising an alliance with the colonists against the Powhatans 33 They tricked Pocahontas into boarding Argall s ship and held her for ransom demanding the release of colonial prisoners held by her father and the return of various stolen weapons and tools 34 Powhatan returned the prisoners but failed to satisfy the colonists with the number of weapons and tools that he returned A long standoff ensued during which the colonists kept Pocahontas captive citation needed During the year long wait she was held at Henricus in Chesterfield County Virginia Little is known about her life there although colonist Ralph Hamor wrote that she received extraordinary courteous usage 35 Linwood Little Bear Custalow refers to an oral tradition which claims that Pocahontas was raped Helen Rountree counters that other historians have disputed that such oral tradition survived and instead argue that any mistreatment of Pocahontas would have gone against the interests of the English in their negotiations with Powhatan A truce had been called the Indians still far outnumbered the English and the colonists feared retaliation 36 At this time Henricus minister Alexander Whitaker taught Pocahontas about Christianity and helped her improve her English Upon her baptism she took the Christian name Rebecca 37 In March 1614 the stand off escalated to a violent confrontation between hundreds of colonists and Powhatan men on the Pamunkey River and the colonists encountered a group of senior Indian leaders at Powhatan s capital of Matchcot The colonists allowed Pocahontas to talk to her tribe when Powhatan arrived and she reportedly rebuked him for valuing her less than old swords pieces or axes She said that she preferred to live with the colonists who loved her 38 Possible first marriage Mattaponi tradition holds that Pocahontas s first husband was Kocoum brother of the Patawomeck weroance Japazaws and that Kocoum was killed by the colonists after his wife s capture in 1613 39 Today s Patawomecks believe that Pocahontas and Kocoum had a daughter named Ka Okee who was raised by the Patawomecks after her father s death and her mother s abduction 40 Kocoum s identity location and very existence have been widely debated among scholars for centuries the only mention of a Kocoum in any English document is a brief statement written about 1616 by William Strachey in England that Pocahontas had been living married to a private captaine called Kocoum for two years 41 She married John Rolfe in 1614 and no other records even hint at any previous husband so some have suggested that Strachey was mistakenly referring to Rolfe himself with the reference being later misunderstood as one of Powhatan s officers 42 Marriage to John Rolfe John Gadsby Chapman The Baptism of Pocahontas 1840 A copy is on display in the Rotunda of the US Capitol During her stay in Henricus Pocahontas met John Rolfe Rolfe s English born wife Sarah Hacker and child Bermuda had died on the way to Virginia after the wreck of the ship Sea Venture on the Summer Isles also known as Bermuda Rolfe established the Virginia plantation Varina Farms where he cultivated a new strain of tobacco He was a pious man and agonized over the potential moral repercussions of marrying a heathen though in fact Pocahontas had accepted the Christian faith and taken the baptismal name Rebecca In a long letter to the governor requesting permission to wed her he expressed his love for Pocahontas and his belief that he would be saving her soul He wrote that he was motivated not by the unbridled desire of carnal affection but for the good of this plantation for the honor of our country for the Glory of God for my own salvation namely Pocahontas to whom my hearty and best thoughts are and have been a long time so entangled and enthralled in so intricate a labyrinth that I was even a wearied to unwind myself thereout 43 The couple were married on April 5 1614 by chaplain Richard Buck probably at Jamestown For two years they lived at Varina Farms across the James River from Henricus Their son Thomas was born in January 1615 44 Their marriage created a climate of peace between the Jamestown colonists and Powhatan s tribes it endured for eight years as the Peace of Pocahontas 45 In 1615 Ralph Hamor wrote Since the wedding we have had friendly commerce and trade not only with Powhatan but also with his subjects round about us 46 The marriage was controversial in the British court at the time because a commoner had the audacity to marry a princess 47 48 England One goal of the Virginia Company of London was to convert Native Americans to Christianity and the company saw an opportunity to promote further investment with the conversion of Pocahontas and her marriage to Rolfe all of which also helped end the First Anglo Powhatan War The company decided to bring Pocahontas to England as a symbol of the tamed New World savage and the success of the Virginia colony 49 and the Rolfes arrived at the port of Plymouth on June 12 1616 50 They journeyed to London by coach accompanied by 11 other Powhatans including a holy man named Tomocomo 51 John Smith was living in London at the time while Pocahontas was in Plymouth and she learned that he was still alive 52 Smith did not meet Pocahontas but he wrote to Queen Anne of Denmark the wife of King James urging that Pocahontas be treated with respect as a royal visitor He suggested that if she were treated badly her present love to us and Christianity might turn to scorn and fury and England might lose the chance to rightly have a Kingdom by her means 9 Pocahontas was entertained at various social gatherings On January 5 1617 she and Tomocomo were brought before the king at the old Banqueting House in the Palace of Whitehall at a performance of Ben Jonson s masque The Vision of Delight According to Smith King James was so unprepossessing that neither Pocahontas nor Tomocomo realized whom they had met until it was explained to them afterward 52 Pocahontas was not a princess in Powhatan culture but the Virginia Company presented her as one to the English public because she was the daughter of an important chief The inscription on a 1616 engraving of Pocahontas reads MATOAKA ALS REBECCA FILIA POTENTISS PRINC POWHATANI IMP VIRGINIAE meaning Matoaka alias Rebecca daughter of the most powerful prince of the Powhatan Empire of Virginia Many English at this time recognized Powhatan as the ruler of an empire and presumably accorded to his daughter what they considered appropriate status Smith s letter to Queen Anne refers to Powhatan their chief King 9 Cleric and travel writer Samuel Purchas recalled meeting Pocahontas in London noting that she impressed those whom she met because she carried her selfe as the daughter of a king 53 When he met her again in London Smith referred to her deferentially as a King s daughter 54 Pocahontas was apparently treated well in London At the masque her seats were described as well placed 55 and according to Purchas London s Bishop John King entertained her with festival state and pomp beyond what I have seen in his greate hospitalitie afforded to other ladies 56 Not all the English were so impressed however Helen C Rountree claims that there is no contemporaneous evidence to suggest that Pocahontas was regarded in England as anything like royalty despite the writings of John Smith Rather she was considered to be something of a curiosity according to Roundtree who suggests that she was merely the Virginian woman by most Englishmen 21 Pocahontas and Rolfe lived in the suburb of Brentford Middlesex for some time as well as at Rolfe s family home at Heacham Norfolk In early 1617 Smith met the couple at a social gathering and wrote that when Pocahontas saw him without any words she turned about obscured her face as not seeming well contented and was left alone for two or three hours Later they spoke more Smith s record of what she said to him is fragmentary and enigmatic She reminded him of the courtesies she had done saying you did promise Powhatan what was yours would be his and he the like to you She then discomfited him by calling him father explaining that Smith had called Powhatan father when he was a stranger in Virginia and by the same reason so must I do you Smith did not accept this form of address because he wrote Pocahontas outranked him as a King s daughter Pocahontas then said with a well set countenance Were you not afraid to come into my father s country and caused fear in him and all his people but me and fear you here I should call you father I tell you then I will and you shall call me child and so I will be for ever and ever your countryman 52 Finally Pocahontas told Smith that she and her tribe had thought him dead but her father had told Tomocomo to seek him because your countrymen will lie much 52 Death Statue of Pocahontas in St George s Church Gravesend Kent In March 1617 Rolfe and Pocahontas boarded a ship to return to Virginia but they sailed only as far as Gravesend on the river Thames when Pocahontas became gravely ill 57 She was taken ashore and died at the approximate age of 21 It is not known what caused her death but theories range from pneumonia smallpox or tuberculosis to her being poisoned 58 According to Rolfe she died saying all must die but tis enough that her child liveth 59 Pocahontas s funeral took place on March 21 1617 in the parish of St George s Church Gravesend 60 Her grave is thought to be underneath the church s chancel though that church was destroyed in a fire in 1727 and its exact site is unknown 61 Her memory is honored with a life sized bronze statue at St George s Church by the American sculptor William Ordway Partridge 62 LegacyPocahontas and John Rolfe had a son Thomas Rolfe born in January 1615 63 Thomas Rolfe and his wife Jane Poythress had a daughter Jane Rolfe 64 who was born in Varina Henrico County Virginia on October 10 1650 65 Jane Rolfe married Robert Bolling of Prince George County Virginia Their son John Bolling was born in 1676 65 John Bolling married Mary Kennon 65 and had six surviving children each of whom married and had surviving children 66 In 1907 Pocahontas was the first Native American to be honored on a US stamp 67 She was a member of the inaugural class of Virginia Women in History in 2000 68 In July 2015 the Pamunkey Indian tribe became the first federally recognized tribe in the state of Virginia they are descendants of the Powhatan chiefdom of which Pocahontas was a member 69 Pocahontas commemorative postage stamp of 1907 First Lady Edith Wilson a descendant of Pocahontas 70 Senator Jeanne Shaheen a descendant of Pocahontas 71 Cultural representations A 19th century depiction After her death increasingly fanciful and romanticized representations were produced about Pocahontas in which she and Smith are frequently portrayed as romantically involved Contemporaneous sources however substantiate claims of their friendship but not romance 45 The first claim of their romantic involvement was in John Davis Travels in the United States of America 1803 72 Stage The first dramatization of the Pocahontas story is James Nelson Barker s The Indian Princess or La Belle Sauvage 1808 Pocahontas or The Settlers of Virginia by George Washington Parke Custis 1830 In 1855 John Brougham produced the burlesque Po ca hon tas or The Gentle Savage Miss Pocahontas Broadway musical Lyric Theatre New York City October 28 1907 Pocahontas ballet by Elliot Carter Jr Martin Beck Theatre New York City May 24 1939 Pocahontas musical by Kermit Goell Lyric Theatre West End London November 14 1963Commemorations The Jamestown Exposition was held in Norfolk from April 26 to December 1 1907 to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Jamestown settlement and three commemorative postage stamps were issued in conjunction with it The five cent stamp portrays Pocahontas modelled from Simon van de Passe s 1616 engraving About 8 million were issued 73 Film Films about Pocahontas include Pocahontas 1910 a Thanhouser Company silent short drama Pocahontas and John Smith 1924 a silent film directed by Bryan Foy Captain John Smith and Pocahontas 1953 directed by Lew Landers and starring Jody Lawrance as Pocahontas Pocahontas 1994 a Japanese animated production from Jetlag Productions directed by Toshiyuki Hiruma Takashi Pocahontas The Legend 1995 a Canadian film based on her life Pocahontas 1995 a Walt Disney Company animated feature and the most well known adaptation of the Pocahontas story The film presents a fictional romantic affair between Pocahontas and John Smith in which Pocahontas teaches Smith respect for nature Irene Bedard voiced and provided the physical model for the title character Pocahontas II Journey to a New World 1998 a Disney sequel depicting Pocahantas falling in love with John Rolfe and traveling to England The New World 2005 film directed by Terrence Malick and starring Q orianka Kilcher as Pocahontas 74 Pocahontas Dove of Peace 2016 a docudrama produced by Christian Broadcasting Network 75 Literature Davis John 1803 Travels in the United States of America 72 Art Simon van de Passe s engraving of 1616 The abduction of Pocahontas 1619 a narrative engraving by Johann Theodor de Bry William Ordway Partridge s bronze statue 1922 of Pocahontas in Jamestown Virginia a replica 1958 stands in the grounds of St George s Church Gravesend 76 Baptism of Pocahontas 1840 a painting by John Gadsby Chapman which hangs in the rotunda of the United States Capitol BuildingOthers SS Pocahontas name of three vessels including one Virginia Ferry Corporation completed in 1940 for Little Creek Cape Charles Ferry sold to Cape May Lewes Ferry in 1963 and renamed as SS Delaware operating from 1964 to 1974 USS Pocahontas ID 3044 Pocahontas a passenger train of the Norfolk and Western Railway running from Norfolk Virginia to Cincinnati OhioSee alsoLa Malinche a Nahua woman from the Mexican Gulf Coast who played a major role in the Spanish Aztec War acting as an interpreter for the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes Mary Kittamaquund daughter of a Piscataway chief in Colonial Maryland Sedgeford Hall Portrait once thought to represent Pocahontas and Thomas Rolfe but now believed to depict the wife Pe o ka and son of Seminole Chief OsceolaReferences a b c d Stebbins Sarah J August 2010 Pocahontas Her Life and Legend National Park Service U S Department of the Interior Retrieved April 7 2015 a b A Guide to Writing about Virginia Indians and Virginia Indian History PDF Commonwealth of Virginia Virginia Council on Indians January 2012 Archived from the original PDF on February 24 2012 Retrieved July 19 2012 Karenne Wood ed The Virginia Indian Heritage Trail Archived July 4 2009 at the Wayback Machine Charlottesville VA Virginia Foundation for the Humanities 2007 Pocahontas Historic Jamestowne Preservation Virginia Archived from the original on April 4 2012 Retrieved April 27 2013 Rose E M 2020 Did Squanto meet Pocahontas and What Might they have Discussed The Junto Retrieved September 24 2020 a b Price pp 243 244 Shapiro Laurie Gwen June 22 2014 Pocahontas Fantasy and Reality Slate The Slate Group Retrieved April 7 2015 Smith True Relation Archived September 28 2013 at the Wayback Machine p 93 a b c d Smith John Smith s 1616 Letter to Queen Anne of Great Britain Digital History Retrieved January 22 2009 Huber Margaret Williamson January 12 2011 Powhatan d 1618 Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3 2017 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved February 18 2011 Spelman Relation 1609 Stebbins Sarah J August 2010 Pocahontas Her Life and Legend National Park Service Retrieved April 6 2015 Linwood Custalow 2007 The true story of Pocahontas the other side of history Daniel Angela L Golden Colo Fulcrum Pub ISBN 9781555916329 OCLC 560587311 Strachey William 1849 composed c 1612 The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia London Hakluyt Society p 111 Retrieved January 5 2019 Rountree Helen C November 3 2010 Cooking in Early Virginia Indian Society Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3 2017 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved February 27 2011 a b Strachey Historie p 65 Stith William 1865 The History of the First Discovery and Settlement of Virginia archive org p 136 Retrieved April 8 2014 Rountree Helen C November 3 2010 Uses of Personal Names by Early Virginia Indians Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3 2017 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved February 18 2011 Waldron William Watson Pocahontas American Princess and Other Poems New York Dean and Trevett 1841 p 8 Hamor True Discourse p 802 a b Rountree Helen C January 25 2011 Pocahontas d 1617 Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3 2017 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved February 24 2011 Lemay J A Leo Did Pocahontas Save Captain John Smith Athens Georgia The University of Georgia Press 1992 p 25 See also Birchfield Did Pocahontas Archived June 26 2012 at the Wayback Machine Smith A True Relation Mith2 umd edu Retrieved August 10 2013 Huber Margaret Williamson January 12 2010 Powhatan d 1618 Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3 2017 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved February 18 2011 Smith Generall Historie p 49 Docsouth unc edu Retrieved August 10 2013 Karen Ordahl Kupperman The Jamestown Project Cambridge Harvard University Press 2007 51 60 125 6 Gleach Powhatan s World pp 118 121 Karen Ordahl Kupperman Indians and English pp 114 174 Smith General History p 152 Smith Generall Historie 261 Early Images of Virginia Indians Invented Scenes for Narratives Archived December 22 2010 at the Wayback Machine Virginia Historical Society Retrieved February 27 2011 Fausz J Frederick An Abundance of Blood Shed on Both Sides England s First Indian War 1609 1614 The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 98 1 January 1990 pp 3ff a b Rountree Helen C December 8 2010 Pocahontas d 1617 Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3 2017 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved February 18 2011 Argall Letter to Nicholas Hawes p 754 Rountree Helen C December 8 2010 Pocahontas d 1617 Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3 2017 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved February 18 2011 Hamor True Discourse p 804 Rountree Helen C December 8 2010 Pocahontas d 1617 Encyclopedia Virginia Archived May 3 2017 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved March 4 2011 Pocahontas V28 Virginia Highway Historical Markers accessed September 17 2009 Dale Letter to D M p 843 844 Custalow Dr Linwood Little Bear Daniel Angela L Silver Star 2007 The True Story of Pocahontas The Other Side of History Golden Colorado Fulcrum Publishing pp 43 47 51 89 ISBN 9781555916329 Retrieved September 18 2014 Deyo William Night Owl September 5 2009 Our Patawomeck Ancestors PDF Patawomeck Tides 12 1 2 7 Retrieved June 18 2015 Strachey Historie p 54 Warner Charles Dudley October 31 2012 first published 1881 The Story of Pocahontas Project Gutenberg Retrieved September 18 2014 Rolfe Letter to Thomas Dale p 851 Editors History com John Rolfe HISTORY CS1 maint extra text authors list link a b Pocahontas Her Life and Legend Historic Jamestowne Part of Colonial National Historical Park U S National Park Service www nps gov Retrieved November 28 2015 Hamor True Discourse p 809 Robert S Tilton Pocahontas The Evolution of an American Narrative Cambridge CUP 1994 p 18 PBS Race The Power of an Illusion gt Race Timeline Price Love and Hate p 163 Biography Pocahontas Born 1594 Died 1617 The Family Magazine New York Redfield amp Lindsay 4 90 1837 Retrieved August 10 2013 Dale Letter to Sir Ralph Winwood p 878 a b c d Smith General History p 261 Purchas Hakluytus Posthumus Vol 19 p 118 Smith Generall Historie p 261 Qtd in Herford and Simpson eds Ben Jonson vol 10 568 569 Purchas Hakluytus Posthumus Vol 19 p 118 Price Love and Hate p 182 Dr Linwood Little Bear Custalow and Angela L Danieal Silver Star The True Story of Pocahontas The Other Side of History Rolfe Letter to Edwin Sandys p 71 Anon Entry in the Gravesend St George composite parish register recording the burial of Princess Pocahontas on 21 March 1616 1617 Medway City Ark Document Gallery Medway Council Retrieved September 17 2009 Pocahontas St George s Gravesend Archived from the original on February 13 2012 Retrieved May 31 2012 Virginia Indians Festival reports and pictures Archived from the original on March 14 2009 Retrieved July 13 2006 John Rolfe History com Retrieved January 25 2019 Yorktown Mailing Address P O Box 210 Us VA 23690 Phone 856 1200 Contact Thomas Rolfe Historic Jamestowne Part of Colonial National Historical Park U S National Park Service www nps gov a b c John Frederick Dorman Adventurers of Purse and Person 4th ed Vol 3 pp 23 36 Henrico County Deeds amp Wills 1697 1704 p 96 Postage Stamps Postal Facts Virginia Women in History Lva virginia gov Retrieved December 13 2016 Heim Joe July 2 2015 A renowned Virginia Indian tribe finally wins federal recognition The Washington Post Retrieved October 27 2015 A First Lady s Princess Complex Royalty Racism amp Edith Wilson s Pocahontas Blood First Ladies Retrieved July 14 2019 Family Tree Shows Senator Jeanne Shaheen is Direct Descendant of Pocahontas Indian Country Media Network indiancountrymedianetwork com a b Tilton Pocahontas pp 35 41 Haimann Alexander T Jamestown Exposition Issue Arago People postage amp the post National Postal Museum online The New World IMBD January 20 2005 Retrieved April 6 2015 Kevin Porter November 2016 Thanksgiving Day Film Pocahontas Dove of Peace Reveals Christian Life of Emissary Between 2 Nations The Christian Post St George s Church website accessed 16 June 2017 Archived from the original on May 18 2015 Retrieved June 16 2017 BibliographyArgall Samuel Letter to Nicholas Hawes June 1613 Repr in Jamestown Narratives ed Edward Wright Haile Champlain VA Roundhouse 1998 Bulla Clyde Robert Little Nantaquas In Pocahontas and The Strangers ed Scholastic inc 730 Broadway New York NY 10003 1971 Custalow Linwood Little Bear and Daniel Angela L Silver Star The True Story of Pocahontas Fulcrum Publishing Golden Colorado 2007 ISBN 978 1 55591 632 9 Dale Thomas Letter to D M 1614 Repr in Jamestown Narratives ed Edward Wright Haile Champlain VA Roundhouse 1998 Dale Thomas Letter to Sir Ralph Winwood June 3 1616 Repr in Jamestown Narratives ed Edward Wright Haile Champlain VA Roundhouse 1998 Fausz J Frederick An Abundance of Blood Shed on Both Sides England s First Indian War 1609 1614 The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 98 1 January 1990 pp 3 56 Gleach Frederic W Powhatan s World and Colonial Virginia Lincoln University of Nebraska Press 1997 Hamor Ralph A True Discourse of the Present Estate of Virginia 1615 Repr in Jamestown Narratives ed Edward Wright Haile Champlain VA Roundhouse 1998 Herford C H and Percy Simpson eds Ben Jonson Oxford Clarendon Press 1925 1952 Huber Margaret Williamson January 12 2011 Powhatan d 1618 Encyclopedia Virginia Retrieved February 18 2011 Kupperman Karen Ordahl Indians and English Facing Off in Early America Ithaca NY Cornell University Press 2000 Lemay J A Leo Did Pocahontas Save Captain John Smith Athens Georgia The University of Georgia Press 1992 Price David A Love and Hate in Jamestown New York Vintage 2003 Purchas Samuel Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes 1625 Repr Glasgow James MacLehose 1905 1907 vol 19 Rolfe John Letter to Thomas Dale 1614 Repr in Jamestown Narratives ed Edward Wright Haile Champlain VA Roundhouse 1998 Rolfe John Letter to Edwin Sandys June 8 1617 Repr in The Records of the Virginia Company of London ed Susan Myra Kingsbuy Washington US Government Printing Office 1906 1935 Vol 3 Rountree Helen C November 3 2010 Divorce in Early Virginia Indian Society Encyclopedia Virginia Retrieved February 18 2011 Rountree Helen C November 3 2010 Early Virginia Indian Education Encyclopedia Virginia Retrieved February 27 2011 Rountree Helen C November 3 2010 Uses of Personal Names by Early Virginia Indians Encyclopedia Virginia Retrieved February 18 2011 Rountree Helen C December 8 2010 Pocahontas d 1617 Encyclopedia Virginia Retrieved February 18 2011 Smith John A True Relation of such Occurrences and Accidents of Noate as hath Hapned in Virginia 1608 Repr in The Complete Works of John Smith 1580 1631 Ed Philip L Barbour Chapel Hill University Press of Virginia 1983 Vol 1 Smith John A Map of Virginia 1612 Repr in The Complete Works of John Smith 1580 1631 Ed Philip L Barbour Chapel Hill University Press of Virginia 1983 Vol 1 Smith John Letter to Queen Anne 1616 Repr as John Smith s Letter to Queen Anne regarding Pocahontas Caleb Johnson s Mayflower Web Pages 1997 Accessed April 23 2006 Smith John The Generall Historie of Virginia New England and the Summer Isles 1624 Repr in Jamestown Narratives ed Edward Wright Haile Champlain VA Roundhouse 1998 Spelman Henry A Relation of Virginia 1609 Repr in Jamestown Narratives ed Edward Wright Haile Champlain VA Roundhouse 1998 Strachey William The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Brittania c 1612 Repr London Hakluyt Society 1849 Symonds William The Proceedings of the English Colonie in Virginia 1612 Repr in The Complete Works of Captain John Smith Ed Philip L Barbour Chapel Hill University of North Carolina Press 1986 Vol 1 Tilton Robert S 1994 Pocahontas The Evolution of an American Narrative Cambridge UP ISBN 978 0 521 46959 3 Waldron William Watson Pocahontas American Princess and Other Poems New York Dean and Trevett 1841 Warner Charles Dudley Captain John Smith 1881 Repr in Captain John Smith Project Gutenberg Text accessed July 4 2006 Woodward Grace Steele Pocahontas Norman University of Oklahoma Press 1969 Further readingBarbour Philip L Pocahontas and Her World Boston Houghton Mifflin Company 1970 ISBN 0 7091 2188 1 Neill Rev Edward D Pocahontas and Her Companions Albany Joel Munsell 1869 Price David A Love and Hate in Jamestown Alfred A Knopf 2003 ISBN 0 375 41541 6 Rountree Helen C Pocahontas s People The Powhatan Indians of Virginia Through Four Centuries Norman University of Oklahoma Press 1990 ISBN 0 8061 2280 3 Strong Pauline Turner Animated Indians Critique and Contradiction in Commodified Children s Culture Cultural Anthology Vol 11 No 3 Aug 1996 pp 405 424 Sandall Roger 2001 The Culture Cult Designer Tribalism and Other Essays ISBN 0 8133 3863 8 Townsend Camilla Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma New York Hill and Wang 2004 ISBN 0 8090 7738 8 Warner Charles Dudley Captain John Smith 1881 Repr in Captain John Smith Project Gutenberg Text accessed July 4 2006 Warner Charles Dudley The Story of Pocahontas 1881 Repr in The Story of Pocahontas Project Gutenberg Text accessed July 4 2006 Woodward Grace Steele Pocahontas Norman University of Oklahoma Press 1969 ISBN 0 8061 0835 5 or ISBN 0 8061 1642 0 John William Weidemeyer 1900 Powhatan Appletons Cyclopaedia of American Biography This article is mostly about Pocahontas Pocahontas Alias Matoaka and Her Descendants Through Her Marriage at Jamestown Virginia in April 1614 with John Rolfe Gentleman Wyndham Robertson Printed by J W Randolph amp English Richmond Va 1887External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to Pocahontas Wikisource has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopaedia article Pocahontas Contact and Conflict The Story of Virginia An American Experience Virginia Historical Society The Anglo Powhatan Wars The Story of Virginia An American Experience Virginia Historical Society Virtual Jamestown Includes text of many original accounts The Pocahontas Archive a comprehensive bibliography of texts about Pocahontas On this day in history Pocahontas marries John Rolfe History com Michals Debra Pocahontas National Women s History Museum 2015 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Pocahontas amp oldid 1023494161, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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