Phoenix club sports Language Watch Edit For other uses see Phoenix club disambiguation For a list of relocated teams see Relocation of professional sports teams This list is incomplete you can help by adding missing items with reliable sources The term phoenix club is used in professional team sports to refer to a new entity that is set up to replace that of a club that has failed in business terms but not in sporting terms and generally involves the continuation of the sporting activity 1 2 In some cases the phoenix club is created by the supporters of the club which has ended or seems to be on the point of ending A phoenix club will often have the same or similar name logo and playing uniform to the original club The term is particularly prevalent in the United Kingdom and Italy in relation to association football although it is also used in other countries The term has also been used to refer to a club formed by supporters of a major team when a change of ownership or policy causes them to lose faith in the management of their favoured side This happened in 2005 when F C United of Manchester was formed by some fans of Manchester United as a protest at the sale of the latter to Malcolm Glazer and at what they saw as the excessive commercialisation of the club 3 although the new club s status as a phoenix is open to dispute if the original club still exists The term is derived from the mythical phoenix a bird which was said to resurrect itself from its own ashes In the Australia New Zealand A League the demise of the sole New Zealand team New Zealand Knights resulted in the newly created club actually calling itself the Wellington Phoenix FC In some cases phoenix clubs will retain the name of the club which they replaced implying a continuation from the former team In other cases name changes occur perhaps due to proprietorial ownership of the old club s name An American football example is the Cleveland Browns the original franchise of which moved to Baltimore in 1995 to become the Baltimore Ravens However the NFL stipulated that as part of the move the franchise would not be able to keep the history and records of the Browns a cornerstone NFL franchise In 1999 the new Browns were granted an expansion franchise and were awarded all of the former team s history by the league even though the extant Ravens had the original Browns players and personnel The league and club view the Browns as one single team with a sporting hiatus 4 The term does not include teams that have relocated as a going concern and or have been renamed Many of the former may list their founding date as the day they moved but they are considered to be the same club and therefore cannot be seen as a phoenix unless their previous entity has officially folded However because there is no single universally accepted definition ascribing the term phoenix club can be disputed depending on the criteria used Furthermore there may be changes in what each country s football governing body and legal system defines as a phoenix club rather than resurrected club Contents 1 Association football 1 1 Austria 1 2 Belgium 1 3 Brazil 1 4 Bulgaria 1 5 Canada 1 6 Czech Republic 1 7 Costa Rica 1 8 Croatia 1 9 England Wales 1 10 Finland 1 11 France 1 12 Germany 1 13 Indonesia 1 14 Italy 1 15 Korea 1 16 Latvia 1 17 Lithuania 1 18 North Macedonia 1 19 Northern Ireland 1 20 Peru 1 21 Republic of Ireland 1 22 Romania 1 23 Russia 1 24 Scotland 1 25 Serbia 1 26 Slovakia 1 27 Slovenia 1 28 Spain 1 29 United States 2 Baseball 2 1 United States 3 Basketball 3 1 Poland 3 2 United Kingdom 4 Ice hockey 4 1 Canada 4 2 England 4 3 Sweden 4 4 United States 5 Notes 6 ReferencesAssociation football EditAustria Edit Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established1 FC Vocklabruck Vocklabrucker SC 5 2009SV Austria Salzburg SV Austria Salzburg 6 2005Hakoah Vienna SC Maccabi Wien 7 2010Belgium Edit Original club 1st Phoenix club Year establishedK S K Beveren Waasland Beveren 8 2010Beerschot AC FCO Beerschot Wilrijk 9 10 2013R E Mouscron Royal Mouscron Peruwelz 11 2010Brazil Edit Original club 1st Phoenix club Year establishedAA Cabofriense AD Cabofriense 12 1997Colorado and Pinheiros Parana Clube 13 1989Gremio Novorizontino 1973 Gremio Novorizontino 2001 14 2001Icasa E C A D R C Icasa 15 2002Taguatinga EC 1964 Taguatinga EC 2018 16 2018Bulgaria Edit Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year establishedF C Etar FC Etar 1924 Veliko Tarnovo 17 2003 OFC Etar Veliko Tarnovo 18 2013Canada Edit Original club Year established Phoenix Club Year established 2nd Phoenix Club Year establishedVancouver Whitecaps 1974 84 1974 Vancouver Whitecaps 1986 2010 a 1986 Vancouver Whitecaps FC 19 circular reference 2009Czech Republic Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedDFC Prag DFC Prag 2016Costa Rica Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedAsociacion Deportiva Limonense Limon F C 20 2009A D Generalenaa AS Puma Generalena 21 2010 a A D Generalena merged with A D Perez Zeledon to become Municipal Perez Zeledon de facto only continuing the Perez Zeledon heritage Croatia Edit Original club Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year establishedNK Varazdin 1931 2015 a NK Varteks 22 2011 NK Varazdin 2012 2012NK Zadar HNK Zadar 2020 a The finances of the original NK Varazdin called NK Varteks from 1958 2010 stumbled repeatedly for five years When this led to their suspension in 2011 an unassociated NK Varteks was created When they were suspended again in 2012 a new unassociated Varazdin emerged The original club including its records and history folded in 2015 England Wales Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedMerthyr Town F C Merthyr Tydfil F C 23 1945Willand Wanderers F C Willand Rovers F C 24 1946Accrington Stanley F C 1891 Accrington Stanley F C 25 1968Gateshead A F C Gateshead F C 26 1977Newport County Newport County A F C 27 1989Aldershot F C Aldershot Town F C 28 1992Wimbledon F C a AFC Wimbledon 29 30 31 2002Hornchurch F C A F C Hornchurch 32 2005Scarborough F C Scarborough Athletic F C 33 2007Farnborough Town F C Farnborough F C 34 2007Halifax Town A F C 35 F C Halifax Town 36 2008Fisher Athletic F C Fisher F C 37 2009Chester City F C Chester F C 38 2010Merthyr Tydfil F C Merthyr Town F C 23 2010Rushden amp Diamonds F C AFC Rushden amp Diamonds 39 2011Windsor amp Eton F C Windsor F C 40 2011Croydon Athletic F C AFC Croydon Athletic 41 2012Hereford United F C Hereford F C 42 2015North Ferriby United A F C 43 North Ferriby F C 44 2019Bury F C Bury A F C 2019Rhyl F C CPD Y Rhyl 1879 2020Macclesfield Town F C Macclesfield F C 2020 to start play in 2021 22 season South Shore F C South Shore F C 2021 to start play in 2022 23 season a Wimbledon F C became Milton Keynes Dons F C in 2004 two years after the foundation of AFC Wimbledon see Relocation of Wimbledon F C to Milton Keynes Finland Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedTampere United TamU K 45 2009France Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedGap FC Gap Foot 05 46 2012Germany Edit Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year establishedSC Tasmania 1900 Berlin SV Tasmania Berlin 1973BSG Chemie Leipzig 1950 FC Sachsen Leipzig 1990 BSG Chemie Leipzig 1997 47 1997SpVgg Blau Weiss 1890 Berlin SV Blau Weiss Berlin 48 49 19921 FC Lokomotive Leipzig 1966 1 FC Lokomotive Leipzig 2003 2003SG Dynamo Schwerin SG Dynamo Schwerin 2003DVV Coburg FC Coburg 50 2011FC Sachsen Leipzig SG Sachsen Leipzig 2011 LVF Sachsen Leipzig 2014Indonesia Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedPutra Samarinda Pusamania Borneo F C 51 2014Italy Edit In the early 21st century several Italian clubs endured very severe economic problems Some most notably Fiorentina 52 53 Napoli 54 55 56 Parma 57 58 and Torino 59 were each declared formally bankrupt and had to reapply to the Italian football authorities to play at a lower level with new owners and as new corporate entities All are considered to be the same clubs before and after the bankruptcy rather than separate phoenix entities They obtained the sports title to remain in the Italy football pyramid using clauses in the Article 52 of N O I F 56 59 Korea Edit Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established 3rd Phoenix club Year establishedPolice FC Ansan Police FC 60 2014 Asan Mugunghwa FC 61 2017 Chungnam Asan FC 62 2020Latvia Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedFK Liepajas Metalurgs FK Liepaja 63 2014Lithuania Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedFK Zalgiris VMFD Zalgirisa 64 2009FBK Kaunas F B K Kaunas 65 2012lt FK Atmosfera 1973 FK Atmosfera 2012 66 2012FK Vetra FK Vetra Rudiskes 67 2014FK Dainava Alytus DFK Dainava 68 2016FK Minija Kretinga FK Minija 2017 69 2017FK Ekranas lt FK Ekranas 2020 Panevezys 70 2020 aFollowing a court settlement in 2014 club acquired rights to the history titles name and other assets of the original club 71 North Macedonia Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedFK Sloga Jugomagnat FK Shkupi 72 2012FK Bashkimi 1947 2008 FK Bashkimi 2011 73 2011FK Pobeda FK Pobeda 2010 74 2010Northern Ireland Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedBallymena F C Ballymena United F C 75 1934Newry City F C Newry City AFC 76 2013Peru Edit Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established 3rd Phoenix club Year establishedJuan Aurich 1922 1992 citation needed Aurich Canana 1993 Juan Aurich 1996 2004 citation needed 1996 Juan Aurich 2005 77 2005Republic of Ireland Edit Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year establishedCork Cork United 78 1940 Cork Athletic 78 1948Romania Edit Original club Phoenix Club Year establishedFC Argeș Pitești F C Argeș 1953 79 2013Russia Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedFC Spartak Ryazan FC Ryazan 80 1995Scotland Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedClydebank F C 1965 2002 b Clydebank F C 2003 2002Gretna F C Gretna F C 2008 81 2008 b Airdrieonians F C 1878 were liquidated in 2002 82 but their owners bought Clydebank 83 and rebranded it as Airdrie United now known as Airdrieonians F C 2002 therefore that club is not a phoenix as it took the place of an existing entity However the current incarnation of Clydebank is a phoenix as it was founded by supporters to replace the entity which had moved to Airdrie 84 and had to restart at the bottom of the Junior league pyramid c During the liquidation of The Rangers Football Club plc in 2012 85 a new company set up for the purpose 86 bought the assets of the business and secured the transfer of its SFA membership which allowed Rangers F C to continue playing albeit having to start again in the lowest national division of the Scottish football league system 87 It is regarded as a continuation of the same club by the relevant authorities 88 89 90 91 Serbia Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedZAK Subotica FK Spartak Subotica 92 1945FK Hajduk Kula OFK Hajduk 93 94 95 2013 96 Slovakia Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedFC VSS Kosice FC Kosice 2018Slovenia Edit Original club 1st Phoenix club Year establishedI SSK Maribor NK Branik Maribor 97 1949NK Izola MNK Izola 98 1996NK Ljubljana FC Ljubljana 99 2005NK Olimpija Ljubljana defunct NK Olimpija Ljubljana 2005 100 101 2005NK Primorje DNS Ajdovscina 102 2011Spain Edit Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established 3rd Phoenix club Year establishedCP Merida Merida UD 103 2000 Merida AD 104 2013CF Ciudad de Murcia CAP Ciudad de Murcia 105 2010UD Salamanca Unionistas de Salamanca CF 106 2013 Salamanca AC 107 2013 Salamanca CF UDS 108 2013CD Ourense UD Ourense 109 2014CF Extremadura Extremadura UD 110 2007CD San Martin EI San Martin 111 2012United States Edit Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established 3rd Phoenix club Year establishedPortland Timbers 1975 1982 Portland Timbers 1985 1990 1985 Portland Timbers 2001 2010 2001 Portland Timbers 2009New York Giants New York Giants 1923 New York Giants 1927New York Hakoah New York Hakoah 1956 New York Hakoah 2009Fort Lauderdale Strikers 1977 83 Fort Lauderdale Strikers 1988 94 1988 112 Fort Lauderdale Strikers 2006 2016 2006San Jose Earthquakes 1974 88 113 San Jose Clash Earthquakes 1994 San Jose Earthquakes 2008 114 Seattle Sounders 1974 83 115 Seattle Sounders 1994 2008 1994 Seattle Sounders FC 2007New York Cosmos 1970 85 New York Cosmos 2010 2010 116 Tampa Bay Rowdies 1975 93 Tampa Bay Rowdies 2010 117 Orange County Soccer Club Orange County SC 2010 118 Austin Aztex FC Austin Aztex 2011 119 Philadelphia Fury 1978 1980 Philadelphia Fury 2011 2019 2011 120 Los Angeles Wolves L A Wolves FC 2014 121 Bethlehem Steel F C 1907 30 Bethlehem Steel FC 2015 122 Rochester Lancers 1967 1980 Rochester Lancers 2015 2015 123 Philadelphia Atoms Philadelphia Atoms SC 2017 124 Baseball EditUnited States Edit Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established 3rd Phoenix club Year established 4th Phoenix club Year establishedBaltimore Orioles 1882 1899 Baltimore Orioles 1901 1902 1901 Baltimore Orioles 1903 1914 1916 1953 1903 Baltimore Orioles b 1954Los Angeles Angels PCL Los Angeles Angels 1961 125 Milwaukee Brewers UA Milwaukee Brewers 1886 92 1886 Milwaukee Brewers 1894 1901 b 1894 Milwaukee Brewers 1902 52 1902 Milwaukee Brewers 1970New York Metropolitans New York Mets 1961 126 Washington Senators 1891 99 Washington Senators Nationals 1901 60 1901 Washington Senators 1961 71 1961 Washington Nationals 2005Basketball EditPoland Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedProkom Trefl Sopot Trefl Sopot 127 2009United Kingdom Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedThames Valley Tigers Guildford Heat 128 2005Manchester Giants 1975 2001 Manchester Giants 129 2011Ice hockey EditCanada Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedOttawa Senators original Ottawa Senators 1992Winnipeg Jets 1972 96 Winnipeg Jets 2011England Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedManchester Storm 1995 2002 Manchester Phoenix 130 2003Sweden Edit Original club Phoenix club Year establishedHammarby Hockey 1921 2008 Hammarby Hockey 131 132 2008United States Edit Original club Phoenix club 2nd phoenix club 3rd phoenix club In operationBakersfield Condors Bakersfield Condors N A 1998 2015 2015 Manchester Monarchs AHL Manchester Monarchs ECHL N A 2001 2015 2015 2019Peoria Rivermen IHL Peoria Rivermen ECHL Peoria Rivermen AHL Peoria Rivermen SPHL 1984 1996 1996 2005 2005 2013 2013 Pittsburgh Hornets Pittsburgh Hornets N A 1936 1956 1961 1967Notes Edit Known as the Vancouver 86ers from their founding through the 2000 season a b Ironically the fourth iteration of the Orioles are a two time Phoenix club having previously served as the third iteration of the Milwaukee Brewers References Edit Phoenix from the flames How do you resurrect a football club 10 July 2015 Retrieved 2 March 2017 via www bbc co uk Administration How a phoenix club can play in Scottish football Stv tv 1 November 2011 Archived from the original on 4 March 2016 Retrieved 8 September 2013 Phoenix football the clubs that would not die Supportersnotcustomers com 25 November 2012 Retrieved 13 August 2014 Cleveland Browns History clevelandbrowns com National Football League Retrieved March 18 2020 Vocklabruck Anpfiff fur neuen Fussball Club im salzkammergut at Retrieved 14 April 2018 permanent dead link FEATURE Austria hope to make purple reign in Salzburg In reuters com 26 May 2011 Retrieved March 10 2020 Barkat Amiram 25 December 2006 Vienna Jews get back pre WWII sporting club Haaretz Retrieved 25 December 2006 Archived copy Archived from the original on 2016 03 04 Retrieved 2015 10 27 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Where is the money going from Victor Wanyama s sale to Southampton stv tv Archived from the original on 4 March 2016 Retrieved 2 March 2017 Beerschot Wilrijk Katelijne 22 03 2014 ultras tifo net Retrieved 2 March 2017 Pasztor David 8 May 2015 New Chelsea partnerships in Belgium and Portugal sbnation com Retrieved 2 March 2017 Cabofriense bate Bonsucesso e sobe para elite do Campeonato Carioca terra com br Retrieved 2 March 2017 Justica pode levar Parana definitivamente a Vila Olimpica entenda Abrindo o Jogo terra com br Archived from the original on 2016 03 03 Retrieved 2 March 2017 1 Archived copy Archived from the original on 2016 03 03 Retrieved 2016 02 04 CS1 maint archived copy as title link DF Sports Taguatinga Esporte Clube esta proximo de retornar ao futebol dfsports com br Retrieved 2018 06 09 Istoriya weebly com Retrieved 2 March 2017 Etr Veliko Trnovo zapochva na chisto vv V grupa Gong bg gong bg Retrieved 2 March 2017 Watch Vancouver Whitecaps FC online YouTube TV Free Trial YouTube TV Retrieved 2018 04 26 PrensaLibre News Archived 2013 11 04 at the Wayback Machine AS Puma Generalena Archived 2016 03 04 at the Wayback Machine UNAFUT in Spanish Strahija Ivana 29 May 2011 Pokrenuto osnivanje NK Varteksa Sportnet hr in Croatian Retrieved 29 May 2011 a b WalesOnline 15 July 2010 Revamped Merthyr ready for next chapter walesonline co uk Retrieved 2 March 2017 Willand Rovers The History www willandrovers co uk Archived from the original on 2012 11 29 Retrieved 2012 12 02 Taylor Louise 27 October 2009 Accrington Stanley desperate not to let history repeat itself The Sport Blog Guardian Retrieved 24 November 2010 Our History Archived 2019 04 22 at the Wayback Machine Gateshead F C Conference play off final Newport s 25 year dream 3 May 2013 Retrieved 2 March 2017 via www bbc co uk Aldershot Town FC enter administration www footballeconomy com Archived from the original on 2016 03 04 Retrieved 8 September 2013 Osbourne Chris 2014 08 13 MK Dons 3 1 AFC Wimbledon BBC Football Retrieved 2014 11 13 It is 11 years since the old Wimbledon was moved 60 miles north to Milton Keynes by music mogul Pete Winkelman and 10 years since the club was rebranded into MK Dons But still AFC Wimbledon the phoenix club created by fans are searching for the win that may provide them with the smallest sensation of revenge White Jim 2012 12 02 MK Dons 2 AFC Wimbledon 1 match report Daily Telegraph Retrieved 2015 01 01 AFC Wimbledon the phoenix club born from the most bitterly contested geographical switch in English football history Doyle Paul 2012 11 30 Neal Ardley s phoenix club on the rise for FA Cup duel of raw emotion The Guardian Retrieved 2015 01 01 Wimbledon as you may have gathered is not the same thing as MK Dons For most people connected with Wimbledon MK Dons is the club that hijacked their one and absconded to Milton Keynes to raise an illegitimate offshoot fans founded a phoenix club AFC Wimbledon that rose from the ashes and soared up through the leagues ascending five tiers in nine seasons to its current perch in League Two Griffin Paul 31 August 2013 THIS AFTERNOON S MATCH PREVIEW AFC HORNCHURCH HOME www pitchero com Retrieved 8 September 2013 Town s fans get new football club BBC Sport 25 June 2007 Retrieved 14 August 2013 In May 2007 with Farnborough Town Football and Social Club Limited facing liquidation the football club was expelled from the Conference and was no more The reformed did catch a break early on though Benefiting from some league restructuring the price for the club failing was a two level relegation and the new club was placed in the Southern League 1 South amp West Division www farnboroughfc co uk Halifax on the brink of collapse BBC Sport Retrieved 31 May 2010 Leagues agreed for 2008 09 season BBC Sport Retrieved 31 May 2010 Supporters trust set up AFC Fisher Non League Daily 2009 05 29 Retrieved 2009 05 29 Chester City wound up in High Court BBC Sport 10 March 2010 Retrieved 8 September 2013 Rushden amp Diamonds fans plan to set up phoenix club BBC Sport Retrieved 8 September 2013 Windsor FC History in the Making Windsor F C Retrieved 2 January 2013 Phoenix club approved www croydon co uk Archived from the original on September 7 2013 Retrieved 8 September 2013 How Hereford FC rose from United s ashes with help from Manchester www theguardian com Retrieved 25 August 2015 Kershaw Tom 2019 03 15 North Ferriby United liquidated over unpaid debts hulldailymail Retrieved 2019 08 01 Thebootifulgame 2019 04 30 New chapter for North Ferriby as FA accept new Phoenix Club The Bootiful Game Retrieved 2019 08 01 Richardson Egan December 2012 New beginnings When Saturday Comes 310 Mospinek Michel 17 June 2012 Gap Le TGI a prononce sa dissolution foot national com Retrieved 7 July 2012 http www turus net sport fussball news 8120 gedenkspiel fur marco eckstein fc sachsen leipzig vs bsg chemie leipzig html Blau Weiss 90 ist wieder da und hat grosse Plane bz berlin de Retrieved 2 March 2017 Erinnerung an Blau Weiss 90 Berlin Einmal Bundesliga und zuruck 11freunde de Retrieved 2 March 2017 Der FC Coburg spielt im Stocke Stadion in German Neue Presse Coburg published 28 June 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Presidente Federale in Italian FIGC Archived from the original PDF on 24 July 2015 Retrieved 12 July 2015 S Korean city Ansan to launch new pro football club Yonhap News Agency 22 July 2016 Retrieved 8 December 2016 아산 협약식 17년 만에 충남 구단 아산 무궁화 새출발 선언 K리그2 아산무궁화 충남아산으로 새 출발 엠블럼도 교체 hankyung com in Korean 27 December 2019 Retrieved 27 December 2019 Virsliga speles FK Liepaja liepajniekiem lv 2014 01 23 Retrieved 2015 01 27 Istorija in Lithuanian FK Zalgiris Archived from the original on 3 January 2019 Retrieved 23 October 2019 Gelumbauskas Evaldas 2 November 2012 V Knyzelis Po ketveriu metu zaisime A lygoje Respublika lt in Lithuanian Retrieved 23 October 2019 Legal entity details Retrieved 7 August 2020 Butautas Ingvaras 22 March 2014 Rudiskese atgimsta Vetra Sportas info in Lithuanian Retrieved 23 October 2019 Atgimusi Dainava taiko į pirmaja lyga in Lithuanian DFK Dainava 16 March 2016 Retrieved 24 October 2019 Team news in Lithuanian FK Minija Retrieved 7 August 2020 FK Ekranas 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original on 2 August 2012 Retrieved 20 October 2017 Rangers are the same club that existed before liquidation says SPFL chief executive Neil Doncaster Daily Record 1 January 2015 Retrieved 20 October 2017 BBC dismisses campaign to have Rangers described as a new club Evening Times 15 May 2016 Retrieved 20 October 2017 European clubs body downgrades Rangers status but recognises history STV 14 December 2012 Retrieved 20 October 2017 FIFA step into new row over Rangers old or new club status Evening Times 24 May 2015 Retrieved 20 October 2017 gradsubotica co rs Otkud ime plavi olubovi i blue marines in Serbian http www sportal rs news php news 110628 Archived 2013 10 07 at the Wayback Machine Hajduk nastavlja kao OFK Hajduk Kula mondo rs Retrieved 2 March 2017 http www novosti rs vesti sport 294 html 449968 Kula Osnovan novi OFK Hajduk http www b92 net sport fudbal vesti php yyyy 2013 amp mm 08 amp dd 20 amp nav id 744740 Ustanovitev mariborskega sportnega drustva Branik in Slovenian MSD 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makewav es Archived from the original on 30 September 2015 Retrieved 2 March 2017 Svenska Fans En hockeyforening bildas Bajen Hockey IF 15 May 2008 Norsberg Linus Aftonbladet Nu kan fansens klubb bli Hammarby IF igen 2 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Phoenix club sports amp oldid 1027929783, wikipedia, wiki, book,


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