A member of the Awn clan of the Young Turk Revolution, he was appointed Emir of Mecca by SultanAbdul Hamid II. In 1916, with the promise of British support for Arab independence, he proclaimed the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire, accusing the Committee of Union and Progress of violating tenets of Islam and limiting the power of the sultan-caliph. Shortly after the outbreak of the revolt, Hussein declared himself 'King of the Arab Countries'. However, his pan-Arab aspirations were not accepted by the Allies, who recognised him only as King of the Hejaz.
Following the removal of his predecessor in October and the sudden death of his successor shortly thereafter, Hussein was appointed grand sharif by official decree of the sultan Abdülhamid on 24 November 1908.
Following deliberations at Ta'if between Hussein and his sons in June 1915, during which Faisal counselled caution, Ali argued against rebellion and Abdullah advocated action and encouraged his father to enter into correspondence with Sir Henry McMahon; over the period 14 July 1915 to 10 March 1916, a total of ten letters, five from each side, were exchanged between Sir Henry McMahon and Sherif Hussein. McMahon was in contact with British Foreign SecretaryEdward Grey throughout, and Grey was to authorise and be ultimately responsible for the correspondence.
The US State Department quotes an aide-mémoire dated 24 October 1917 given by the Arab Bureau to the American Diplomatic Agency in Cairo confirming that "...Britain, France and Russia agreed to recognize the Sherif as lawful independent ruler of the Hedjaz and to use the title of "King of the Hedjaz" when addressing him, and a note to this effect was handed to him on December 10, 1916".
When Hussein declared himself King of the Hejaz, he also declared himself King of the Arab lands (malik bilad-al-Arab). This only aggravated his conflict with Abdulaziz ibn Saud, which was already present because of their differences in religious beliefs and with whom he had fought before the First World War, siding with fellow anti-Saudis, the Ottomans in 1910.
On the 2nd of Muharram 1335 (30 October 1916), Emir Abdullah called a meeting of majlis where he read a letter in which "Husayn ibn Ali was recognized as sovereign of the Arab nation. Then all those present arose and proclaimed him Malik al-Arab, King of the Arabs."
Following World War I
In the aftermath of the war, the Arabs found themselves freed from centuries of Ottoman rule. Hussein's son Faisal was made King of Syria, but this kingdom proved short-lived, as the Middle East came under mandate rule of France and the United Kingdom. The British Government subsequently made Faisal and his brother Abdullah kings of Iraq and Transjordan, respectively.
Having received a British subsidy totalling £6.5m between 1916 and April 1919, in May 1919, the subsidy was reduced to £100K monthly (from £200K), dropped to £75K from October, £50K in November, £25K in December until February 1920 after which no more payments were made.
In 1919, King Hussein refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. In August 1920, five days after the signing of the Treaty of Sèvres, Curzon asked Cairo to procure Hussein's signature to both treaties and agreed to make a payment of £30,000 conditional on signature. Hussein declined and in 1921, stated that he could not be expected to "affix his name to a document assigning Palestine to the Zionists and Syria to foreigners."
However, even after an assurance by McMahon, Hussein did not receive the lands promised by their British allies. McMahon claimed that the proposed lands to be taken in by the new Arab State were not purely Arab. In actuality, McMahon refused to hand over the new lands as the areas in question had already been claimed by the new British ally, France.
Exile and abdication
Sharif Hussein in Amman, Transjordan before he left for Aqaba
Two days after the Turkish Caliphate was abolished by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on 3 March 1924, Hussein declared himself Caliph at his son Abdullah's winter camp in Shunah, Transjordan. The claim to the title had a mixed reception, and Hussein was soon ousted and driven out of Arabia by the Saudis, a rival clan that had no interest in the Caliphate. Abd-ul-aziz ibn Sa'ud defeated Hussein in 1924, but he continued to use the title of Caliph when living in Transjordan. Although the British had supported Hussein from the start of the Arab Revolt and the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence, they elected not to help him to repel the Saudi attack, which eventually took Mecca, Medina, and Jeddah. After his abdication, another of his sons, Ali, briefly assumed the throne of the Hejaz, but then he too had to flee from the encroachment of the Saudi forces. Another of Hussein's sons, Faisal, was briefly King of Syria and later King of Iraq, while Abdullah was Emir.
King Hussein was then forced to flee to Amman, Transjordan, where his son Abdullah was Emir. During this period, King Hussein is described as having took over control that his son wielded, and therefore was sent to live in Aqaba (which was recently transferred from Hijazi to Transjordanian sovereignty by the British). Then from Aqaba, Britain, responding to Ibn Saud's plea that the Sharif be expelled from Aqaba, exiled him to British-controlled Cyprus where he lived with his son Zaid until he was paralyzed by a stroke at age 79 in 1930, and subsequently was allowed to live in Amman, Transjordan.
Sharif Hussein bin Ali last days in Amman Transjordan
Hussein bin Ali Sharif of Mecca Language Watch Edit For people with similar names see Hussein bin Ali disambiguation This article has multiple issues Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page Learn how and when to remove these template messages This article relies too much on references to primary sources Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources December 2007 Learn how and when to remove this template message This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Hussein bin Ali Sharif of Mecca news newspapers books scholar JSTOR December 2007 Learn how and when to remove this template message Learn how and when to remove this template message Hussein bin Ali Al Hashimi Arabic الحسين بن علي الهاشمي al Ḥusayn bin Ali al Hashimi 1 May 1854 4 June 1931 was an Arab leader from the Banu Hashim clan who was the Sharif and Emir of Mecca from 1908 and after proclaiming the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire King of the Hejaz from 1916 to 1924 At the end of his reign he also briefly laid claim to the office of Caliph He was a 37th generation direct descendant of Muhammad as he belongs to the Hashemite family HusseinSharif Hussein in 1916King of HejazReign10 June 1916 3 October 1924PredecessorOffice establishedSuccessorAliKing of the ArabsReign10 June 1916 19 December 1925PredecessorOffice establishedSuccessorOffice abolishedSharif and Emir of MeccaReign1 November 1908 3 October 1924PredecessorAbd al Ilah PashaSuccessorAliBorn1 May 1854 Istanbul Ottoman EmpireDied4 June 1931 aged 77 Amman TransjordanBurialAl Aqsa Mosque Jerusalem British PalestineSpousesAbdiyah KhanumMadiha KhanumKhadija KhanumAdila KhanumIssueAli of HejazAbdullah I of JordanFaisal I of Iraq and SyriaSalihaZeid Crown Prince of IraqFatimahSarrahHouseBanu QatadahAl AwnHashemite royal familyFatherAli Pasha bin MuhammadMotherSalha bint Gharam al ShaharReligionSunni Islam 1 A member of the Awn clan of the Qatadid emirs of Mecca he was perceived to have rebellious inclinations and in 1893 was summoned to Constantinople where he was kept on the Council of State In 1908 in the aftermath of the Young Turk Revolution he was appointed Emir of Mecca by Sultan Abdul Hamid II In 1916 with the promise of British support for Arab independence he proclaimed the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire accusing the Committee of Union and Progress of violating tenets of Islam and limiting the power of the sultan caliph Shortly after the outbreak of the revolt Hussein declared himself King of the Arab Countries However his pan Arab aspirations were not accepted by the Allies who recognised him only as King of the Hejaz After World War I Hussein refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles in protest at the Balfour Declaration and the establishment of British and French mandates in Syria Iraq and Palestine He later refused to sign the Anglo Hashemite Treaty and thus deprived himself of British support when his kingdom was invaded by Ibn Saud In March 1924 when the Ottoman Caliphate was abolished Hussein proclaimed himself Caliph of all Muslims In October 1924 facing defeat by Ibn Saud he abdicated and was succeeded as king by his eldest son Ali His sons Faisal and Abdullah were made rulers of Iraq and Transjordan respectively in 1921 Contents 1 Early life 2 As Emir 2 1 Relationship with the Turks 2 2 Relationship with the British 3 King of Hejaz 3 1 Arab Revolt 3 2 Following World War I 3 3 Deterioration in British relationship 3 4 Exile and abdication 4 Marriage and children 5 Titles and honours 5 1 Titles 5 2 Honours 5 2 1 National honours 5 2 2 Foreign honours 6 Film 7 Ancestry 8 See also 9 Bibliography 10 External linksEarly life EditHussein bin Ali bin Muhammad bin Abd al Mu in bin Awn was born in Constantinople in 1853 or 1854 as the eldest son of Sharif Ali bin Muhammad who was the second son of Muhammad ibn Abd al Mu in the former Emir of Mecca As a sharif he was a descendant of Muhammad through his grandson Hasan ibn Ali and a member of the ancient Hashemite house His mother Bezm i Cihan the wife of Ali was a Circassian 2 He belonged to the Dhawu Awn clan of the Abadilah a branch of the Banu Qatadah tribe The Banu Qatadah had ruled the Emirate of Mecca since the assumption of their ancestor Qatadah ibn Idris in 1201 and were the last of four dynasties of sharifs that altogether had ruled Mecca since the 10th century In 1827 Sharif Muhammad bin Abd al Mu in was appointed to the Emirate becoming the first Emir from the Dhawu Awn and bringing an end to the centuries long dominance of the Dhawu Zayd He reigned until 1851 when he was replaced by Sharif Abd al Muttalib ibn Ghalib of the Dhawu Zayd After being deposed he was sent along with his family and sons to reside in the Ottoman capital of Constantinople It was there that Hussein was born to Muhammad s son Ali in 1270 AH 1853 1854 Muhammad was reappointed to the Emirate in 1856 and Hussein then aged two or three accompanied his father and grandfather back to Mecca 2 However Muhammad died in 1858 and was succeeded by his eldest son Sharif Abd Allah Pasha A few years later in 1278 AH 1861 1862 Ali was recalled to Istanbul while Hussein remained in the Hejaz under the care of his uncle Abd Allah Hussein was raised at home unlike other young sharifs who were customarily sent outside of the city to grow up among the nomadic Bedouin Reportedly a studious youth he mastered the principles of the Arabic language and was also educated in Islamic law and doctrine Among his teachers was Shaykh Muhammad Mahmud at Turkizi ash Shinqiti with whom he studied the seven Mu allaqat With Shaykh Ahmad Zayni Dahlan he studied the Qur an completing its memorization before he was 20 years old 2 3 4 During Abd Allah s reign Hussein became familiar with the politics and intrigue surrounding the sharifian court He also participated in numerous expeditions to Nejd and the eastern regions of the Hejaz to meet with the Arab tribes over whom the Emir exerted a loose form of control He learned the ways of the Bedouin including the skills needed to withstand the harsh desert environment In his travels he gained a deep knowledge of the desert flora and fauna and developed a liking for humayni verse a type of vernacular poetry malhun of the Bedouin He also practiced horse riding and hunting 2 In 1287 AH 1871 1872 Hussein traveled to Constantinople to visit his father who had fallen ill He returned to Mecca after his father s death later that year 5 In 1875 he married Abd Allah s daughter Abdiyah In 1877 Abd Allah died and Hussein and his cousin Ali ibn Abd Allah were conferred the rank of pasha Abd Allah was succeeded by his brother Sharif Husayn Pasha After Husayn was assassinated in 1880 the Sultan reinstated Abd al Muttalib of the Dhawu Zayd as Emir Displeased at the removal of the Dhawu Awn line from the Emirate Hussein traveled to Istanbul with two cousins Ali and Muhammad and their uncle Abd al Ilah However they were ordered to return to Mecca by the Sultan whose intelligence services suspected that the sharifs were conspiring with European powers particularly the British to return the Sharifate to their clan The Emirate returned to the Dhawu Awn in 1882 with the deposition of Abd al Muttalib and the appointment of Sharif Awn ar Rafiq Pasha the next eldest of the remaining sons of Sharif Muhammad As Emir EditFollowing the removal of his predecessor in October and the sudden death of his successor shortly thereafter Hussein was appointed grand sharif by official decree of the sultan Abdulhamid on 24 November 1908 6 Relationship with the Turks Edit Though there is no evidence to suggest that Sharif Hussein bin Ali was inclined to Arab nationalism before 1916 The rise of Turkish nationalism under the Ottoman Empire culminating in the 1908 Young Turk Revolution nevertheless displeased the Hashemites and resulted in a rift between them and the Ottoman revolutionaries 7 During World War I Hussein initially remained allied with the Ottomans but began secret negotiations with the British on the advice of his son Abdullah who had served in the Ottoman parliament up to 1914 and was convinced that it was necessary to separate from the increasingly nationalistic Ottoman administration 7 Relationship with the British Edit Main article McMahon Hussein Correspondence Following deliberations at Ta if between Hussein and his sons in June 1915 during which Faisal counselled caution Ali argued against rebellion and Abdullah advocated action 8 and encouraged his father to enter into correspondence with Sir Henry McMahon over the period 14 July 1915 to 10 March 1916 a total of ten letters five from each side were exchanged between Sir Henry McMahon and Sherif Hussein McMahon was in contact with British Foreign Secretary Edward Grey throughout and Grey was to authorise and be ultimately responsible for the correspondence The British Secretary of State for War Field Marshal Lord Kitchener appealed to him for assistance in the conflict on the side of the Triple Entente Starting in 1915 as indicated by an exchange of letters with Lieutenant Colonel Sir Henry McMahon the British High Commissioner in the Sultanate of Egypt Hussein seized the opportunity and demanded recognition of an Arab nation that included the Hejaz and other adjacent territories as well as approval for the proclamation of an Arab Caliphate of Islam 7 High Commissioner McMahon accepted and assured him that his assistance would be rewarded by an Arab empire encompassing the entire span between Egypt and Persia with the exception of British possessions and interests in Kuwait Aden and the Syrian coastKing of Hejaz Edit Sharif Hussein in December 1916 The US State Department quotes an aide memoire dated 24 October 1917 given by the Arab Bureau to the American Diplomatic Agency in Cairo confirming that Britain France and Russia agreed to recognize the Sherif as lawful independent ruler of the Hedjaz and to use the title of King of the Hedjaz when addressing him and a note to this effect was handed to him on December 10 1916 9 When Hussein declared himself King of the Hejaz he also declared himself King of the Arab lands malik bilad al Arab This only aggravated his conflict with Abdulaziz ibn Saud which was already present because of their differences in religious beliefs and with whom he had fought before the First World War siding with fellow anti Saudis the Ottomans in 1910 Arab Revolt Edit Main article Arab Revolt Drawing by Khalil Gibran 1916 On the 2nd of Muharram 1335 30 October 1916 Emir Abdullah called a meeting of majlis where he read a letter in which Husayn ibn Ali was recognized as sovereign of the Arab nation Then all those present arose and proclaimed him Malik al Arab King of the Arabs 10 Following World War I Edit In the aftermath of the war the Arabs found themselves freed from centuries of Ottoman rule Hussein s son Faisal was made King of Syria but this kingdom proved short lived as the Middle East came under mandate rule of France and the United Kingdom The British Government subsequently made Faisal and his brother Abdullah kings of Iraq and Transjordan respectively Deterioration in British relationship Edit In January and February 1918 Hussein received the Hogarth Message and Bassett Letter in response to his requests for an explanation of the Balfour Declaration and Sykes Picot Agreement respectively Having received a British subsidy totalling 6 5m between 1916 and April 1919 in May 1919 the subsidy was reduced to 100K monthly from 200K dropped to 75K from October 50K in November 25K in December until February 1920 after which no more payments were made In 1919 King Hussein refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles In August 1920 five days after the signing of the Treaty of Sevres Curzon asked Cairo to procure Hussein s signature to both treaties and agreed to make a payment of 30 000 conditional on signature Hussein declined and in 1921 stated that he could not be expected to affix his name to a document assigning Palestine to the Zionists and Syria to foreigners 11 However even after an assurance by McMahon Hussein did not receive the lands promised by their British allies McMahon claimed that the proposed lands to be taken in by the new Arab State were not purely Arab In actuality McMahon refused to hand over the new lands as the areas in question had already been claimed by the new British ally France 12 Exile and abdication Edit Sharif Hussein in Amman Transjordan before he left for Aqaba Two days after the Turkish Caliphate was abolished by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on 3 March 1924 Hussein declared himself Caliph at his son Abdullah s winter camp in Shunah Transjordan 13 The claim to the title had a mixed reception and Hussein was soon ousted and driven out of Arabia by the Saudis a rival clan that had no interest in the Caliphate Abd ul aziz ibn Sa ud defeated Hussein in 1924 but he continued to use the title of Caliph when living in Transjordan Although the British had supported Hussein from the start of the Arab Revolt and the Hussein McMahon Correspondence they elected not to help him to repel the Saudi attack which eventually took Mecca Medina and Jeddah After his abdication another of his sons Ali briefly assumed the throne of the Hejaz but then he too had to flee from the encroachment of the Saudi forces Another of Hussein s sons Faisal was briefly King of Syria and later King of Iraq while Abdullah was Emir King Hussein was then forced to flee to Amman Transjordan where his son Abdullah was Emir During this period King Hussein is described as having took over control that his son wielded and therefore was sent to live in Aqaba which was recently transferred from Hijazi to Transjordanian sovereignty by the British 14 Then from Aqaba Britain responding to Ibn Saud s plea that the Sharif be expelled from Aqaba 15 exiled him to British controlled Cyprus where he lived with his son Zaid until he was paralyzed by a stroke at age 79 in 1930 14 16 and subsequently was allowed to live in Amman Transjordan Sharif Hussein bin Ali last days in Amman Transjordan King Hussein died in Amman in 1931 and was buried in Jerusalem on the Haram esh Sharif or Temple Mount in a walled enclosure decorated with white marble and carpets 17 Marriage and children Edit The funeral of King Hussein in Jerusalem 1931 Hussein who had four wives fathered five sons and three daughters with three of his wives Sharifa Abidiya bint Abdullah died Istanbul Turkey 1888 buried there eldest daughter of his paternal uncle Amir Abdullah Kamil Pasha Grand Sharif of Mecca Madiha a Circassian Sharifa Khadija bint Abdullah 1866 Amman Transjordan 4 July 1921 second daughter of Amir Abdullah Kamil Pasha Grand Sharif of Mecca Adila Khanum Istanbul Turkey 1879 Larnaca Cyprus 12 July 1929 buried there at the Hala Sultan Umm Haram Tekke daughter of Salah Bey and granddaughter of Mustafa Rashid Pasha sometime Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire With his first wife Abidiya bint Abdullah he had Prince Ali last King of Hejaz married to Nafisa bint Abdullah Parents of Aliya bint Ali Grandparents of Sharif Ali bin al Hussein Hasan bin Hussein died young citation needed Prince Abdullah Emir later King of Transjordan married to Musbah bint Nasser Suzdil Hanum and Nahda bint Uman Princess Fatima married a European Muslim businessman from France Prince Faisal later King of Iraq and Syria married to Huzaima bint Nasser Parents of Ghazi King of Iraq born 1912 died 4 April 1939 married his first cousin Princess Aliya bint Ali daughter of HM King Ali of Hejaz With his second wife Madiha he had Princess Saleha married Abdullah bin Muhammed With his third wife Adila he had Princess Sara married Muhammad Atta Amin in July 1933 divorced September 1933 Prince Zeid who succeeded in pretense King Faisal II of Iraq upon his assassination in 1958 but never actually ruled as Iraq became a republic Married to Fahrelnissa Kabaagac Ali King of Hejaz Abdullah King of Transjordan Jordan 1921 1951 Faisal King of Greater Syria 1920 and King of Iraq 1921 1933 Prince ZeidTitles and honours EditTitles Edit Styles of Sharif Hussein bin Ali of the Arabs Reference styleHis MajestySpoken styleYour MajestyAlternative styleSirHis Royal Highness The Grand Sharif and Emir of Mecca 1908 1916 His Majesty The King of the Arabs Commander of the Faithful and Grand Sharif and Emir of Mecca 1916 1924 His Majesty The Caliph of the Arabs and Muslims 1924 1931 Honours Edit National honours Edit Hejaz Founding Grand Master of the Supreme Order of the Renaissance Founding Grand Master of the Order of Independence Founding Sovereign of the Ma an Medal of 1918 Founding Sovereign of the Medal of Arab Independence 1921Foreign honours Edit Belgium Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold Kingdom of Egypt Knight Grand Cordon with Collar of the Order of Muhammad Ali France Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour Ottoman Empire Grand Cordon of the Order of Glory 10 October 1908 Grand Cordon of the Order of the Osmans Grand Cordon of the Order of Nobility Great Imtiyaz Medal in Gold Great Imtiyaz Medal in Silver Tunisia Grand Cordon of the Order of Glory United Kingdom Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath 11 March 1920 Film EditIn the 1962 film Lawrence of Arabia Alec Guinness portrayed Prince Faisal Sharif Hussein s son In the 1992 film A Dangerous Man Lawrence After Arabia Alexander Siddig portrayed Prince Faisal taking part in the negotiations of the Paris Peace Conference as a representative of the House of Hashemites to claim independence of the Arab nation Ancestry EditvteHashemites 18 19 Hashim eponymous ancestor Abd al MuttalibAbu TalibAbdallahMuhammad Islamic prophet Ali fourth caliph FatimahHasan fifth caliph Hasan Al Mu thannaAbdullahMusa Al DjawnAbdullahMusaMuhammadAbdullahAliSuleimanHusseinIssaAbd Al KarimMuta inIdrisQatada Sharif of Mecca AliHassan Sharif of Mecca Abu Numayy I Sharif of Mecca Rumaythah Sharif of Mecca Ajlan Sharif of Mecca Hassan Sharif of Mecca Barakat I Sharif of Mecca Muhammad Sharif of Mecca Barakat II Sharif of Mecca Abu Numayy II Sharif of Mecca Hassan Sharif of Mecca Abdullah Sharif of Mecca HusseinAbdullahMuhsinAuon Ra i Al HadalaAbdul Mu eenMuhammad Sharif of Mecca Ali Hussein Sharif of Mecca King of Hejaz Ali King of Hejaz Abdullah I King of Jordan Faisal I King of Syria King of Iraq Zeid pretender to Iraq Abd Al Ilah Regent of Iraq Talal King of Jordan Ghazi King of Iraq Ra ad pretender to Iraq Hussein King of Jordan Faisal II King of Iraq Zeid Abdullah II King of Jordan Hussein Crown Prince of Jordan See also EditBattle of Mecca 1916 Sharifian Caliphate Siege of Medina Suleiman MousaBibliography EditNotes IRAQ Resurgence In The Shiite World Part 8 Jordan amp The Hashemite Factors APS Diplomat Redrawing the Islamic Map 2005 Archived from the original on 9 July 2012 a b c d Niḍal Dawud al Mumini 1996 الشريف الحسين بن علي والخلافة ash Sharif al Ḥusayn ibn Ali wa al khilafah in Arabic Amman al Maṭba ah aṣ Ṣafadi Khayr ad Din az Zirikli 1923 ما رأيت وما سمعت Ma ra aytu wa ma sami t in Arabic al Qahirah Cairo al Maṭba ah al Arabiyah wa Maktabatuha Khayr ad Din az Zirikli 2002 1967 الملك حسين al Malik Ḥusayn الأعلام al A lam in Arabic 2 15th ed Bayrut Beirut Dar al Ilm lil Malayin pp 249 250 Burdett A L P ed 1996 Records of the Hijaz 1798 1849 7 Cambridge Archive Editions p 304 ISBN 9781852076559 H is father the Sherif Ali Pasha died at Istanbul about the year 1872 Kayali Hasan 3 September 1997 5 A Case Study in Centralization The Hijaz under Young Turk Rule 1908 1914 The Grand Sharifate of Husayn Ibn Ali Arabs and Young Turks Ottomanism Arabism and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire 1908 1918 University of California Press ISBN 978 0 520 20446 1 a b c Avi Shlaim 27 November 2008 Lion of Jordan Penguin Books Ltd ISBN 978 0 14 101728 0 Paris Timothy J 2003 Britain the Hashemites and Arab Rule The Sherifian Solution Routledge p 21 ISBN 978 1 135 77191 1 Division of Near Eastern Affairs 1931 Mandate for Palestine PDF Report US State Department p 7 Peters 1994 p 368 Mousa Suleiman 1978 A Matter of Principle King Hussein of the Hijaz and the Arabs of Palestine International Journal of Middle East Studies 9 2 184 185 doi 10 1017 S0020743800000052 Cleveland William L A History of the Modern Middle East Westview Press 2013 pg 145 Teitelbaum 2001 p 243 a b Viorst Milton 18 December 2007 Storm from the East The Struggle Between the Arab World and the Christian West ISBN 9780307431851 الشريف الحسين الرضي والخلافة in Arabic 2010 Unknown parameter urllhttps books google com books id ignored help Abu Lebdeh Hatem Shareef 1997 Conflict and Peace in the Middle East National Perceptions and United States Jordan Relations ISBN 9780761808121 Kaplan Robert D 2001 Eastward to Tartary travels in the Balkans the Middle East and the Caucasus New York Vintage departures p 205 ISBN 0375705767 Kamal Salibi 15 December 1998 The Modern History of Jordan I B Tauris Retrieved 7 February 2018 Family tree alhussein gov 1 January 2014 Retrieved 8 February 2018 References Peters Francis Edward 1994 Mecca A Literary History of the Muslim Holy Land Princeton University Press ISBN 9780691032672 Total pages 473 Teitelbaum Joshua 2001 The Rise and Fall of the Hashemite Kingdom of the Hijaz C Hurst amp Co Publishers ISBN 1 85065 460 3External links EditNewspaper clippings about Hussein bin Ali Sharif of Mecca in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBWal Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Muḥammad ibn Abd al Mu in ibn AwnHouse of Hashim Dhawu Awn branch of Banu QatadahBorn 1854 Died 4 June 1931Regnal titlesNew creation Arab revolt King of the Arab Lands October 1916 3 October 1924 Recognized by the Allies only as King of Hejaz Succeeded by Ali ibn al Husayn as King of HejazPreceded by Himself as Ottoman emir Sharif and Emir of Mecca June 1916 3 October 1924 Succeeded by Ali ibn al HusaynPolitical officesPreceded by Abd al Ilah Pasha Sharif and Emir of Mecca November 1908 June 1916 Ottoman appointed Succeeded by Himself as independent emirSucceeded by Ali Haydar PashaSunni Islam titlesPreceded by Abdulmecid II TITULAR Caliph of the Muslims 11 March 1924 3 October 1924 Reason for succession failure Not widely recognized VacantRetrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Hussein bin Ali Sharif of Mecca amp oldid 1027905840, wikipedia, wiki, book,