Christchurch Language Watch Edit ChCh redirects here For the Ontario TV station see CHCH DT For other uses of Christchurch see Christchurch disambiguation Christchurch ˈ k r aɪ s tʃ ɜːr tʃ KREYESS church Maori Ōtautahi is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Canterbury Region The Christchurch urban area lies on the South Island s east coast just north of Banks Peninsula The urban area is home to 383 200 residents 3 and the territorial authority has 394 700 people 3 which makes it the second most populous city in New Zealand after Auckland and before Wellington The Avon River flows through the centre of the city with an urban park located along its banks Christchurch Ōtautahi Maori CityClockwise from top City skyline Christchurch Central City Sumner Beach aerial view of Hagley Park New Regent StreetFlagCoat of armsNickname s The Garden CityMotto s Fide Condita Fructu Beata Spe Fortis English Founded in Faith Rich in the Fulfillment thereof Strong in Hope for the FutureChristchurchShow map of South IslandChristchurchShow map of New ZealandCoordinates 43 31 48 S 172 37 13 E 43 53000 S 172 62028 E 43 53000 172 62028 Coordinates 43 31 48 S 172 37 13 E 43 53000 S 172 62028 E 43 53000 172 62028CountryNew ZealandIslandSouth IslandRegionCanterburyTerritorial authorityChristchurch City CouncilWardsBanks Peninsula Burwood Cashmere Central Coastal Fendalton Halswell Harewood Heathcote Hornby Innes Linwood Papanui Riccarton Spreydon WaimairiSettled by the UK1848Named forChrist Church OxfordNZ ParliamentBanks Peninsula Christchurch Central Christchurch East Ilam Selwyn Waimakariri Wigram Te Tai Tonga Maori Government MayorLianne Dalziel MPsMatthew Doocey National Nicola Grigg National Tracey McLellan Labour Sarah Pallett Labour Rino Tirikatene Labour Duncan Webb Labour Poto Williams Labour Megan Woods Labour Area 1 Territorial1 426 km2 551 sq mi Urban295 15 km2 113 96 sq mi Elevation 2 20 m 70 ft Population June 2020 3 Territorial394 700 Density280 km2 720 sq mi Urban383 200 Urban density1 300 km2 3 400 sq mi DemonymCantabrianTime zoneUTC 12 NZST Summer DST UTC 13 NZDT Postcode s 8011 8013 8014 8022 8023 8024 8025 8041 8042 8051 8052 8053 8061 8062 8081 8082 8083Area code s 03Local iwiNgai Tahu Kati MamoeWebsitechristchurchnz wbr comHigh Manchester and Lichfield Streets in Christchurch 1923 Archaeological evidence has indicated that people first settled in the Christchurch area in about 1250 Christchurch became a city by Royal Charter on 31 July 1856 making it officially the oldest established city in New Zealand The Canterbury Association which settled the Canterbury Plains named the city after Christ Church Oxford The new settlement was laid out in a grid pattern centred on Cathedral Square during the 19th century there were few barriers to the rapid growth of the urban area except for the Pacific to the east and the Port Hills to the south Agriculture is the historic mainstay of Christchurch s economy The early presence of the University of Canterbury and the heritage of the city s academic institutions in association with local businesses has fostered a number of technology based industries Christchurch is one of five gateway cities for Antarctic exploration hosting Antarctic support bases for several nations 4 The city suffered a series of earthquakes between September 2010 and January 2012 with the most destructive of them occurring at 12 51 p m on 22 February 2011 in which 185 people were killed and thousands of buildings across the city collapsed or suffered severe damage By late 2013 1 500 buildings in the city had been demolished leading to an ongoing recovery and rebuilding project The city later became the site of a terrorist attack targeting two mosques on 15 March 2019 in which 51 people were killed and which was described by Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern as one of New Zealand s darkest days Contents 1 Names 2 History 2 1 Maori settlement 2 2 European settlement 2 3 1900 2000 2 4 Modern history 2 4 1 2010 2012 earthquakes 2 4 2 2013 to 2018 2 4 3 2019 terrorist attacks 3 Geography 3 1 Central City 3 2 Inner suburbs 3 3 Outer suburbs 3 4 Satellite towns 3 5 Climate 4 Demographics 4 1 Culture and identity 5 Economy 5 1 Farming 5 2 Industry 5 3 Tourism 5 4 Gateway to the Antarctic 5 4 1 Antarctic exploration 6 Government 6 1 Local government 6 2 Central government 7 Culture and entertainment 7 1 Cinema 7 2 Parks and nature 7 3 Television 7 4 Theatre 7 5 Music 7 6 Venues 8 Sport 8 1 Teams 8 2 Events 8 3 Venues 8 4 Ski fields 9 Education 9 1 Secondary schools 9 2 Tertiary institutions 10 Transport 11 Utilities 11 1 Electricity 12 Sister cities 13 See also 14 References 14 1 Notes 14 2 Bibliography 15 External linksNames EditThe name of Christchurch was agreed on at the first meeting of the Canterbury Association on 27 March 1848 It was suggested by founder John Robert Godley whose alma mater was Christ Church University of Oxford 5 The Maori name Ōtautahi the place of Tautahi was adopted in the 1930s originally it was the name of a specific site by the Avon River near present day Kilmore Street 6 The site was a seasonal dwelling of Ngai Tahu chief Te Potiki Tautahi whose main home was Port Levy on Banks Peninsula Prior to that the Ngai Tahu generally referred to the Christchurch area as Karaitiana 7 a transliteration of the English word Christian ChCh is sometimes used as an abbreviation of Christchurch History EditSee also History of the Canterbury Region Maori settlement Edit This section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed March 2019 Learn how and when to remove this template message Archaeological evidence found in a cave at Redcliffs in 1876 has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by moa hunting tribes about 1250 CE These first inhabitants were thought to have been followed by the Waitaha iwi who are said to have migrated from the East coast of the North Island in the 16th century Following tribal warfare the Waitaha made of three peoples were dispossessed by the Ngati Mamoe iwi They were in turn subjugated by the Ngai Tahu iwi who remained in control until the arrival of European settlers European settlement Edit Following the purchase of land at Putaringamotu modern Riccarton by the Weller brothers whalers of Otago and Sydney a party of European settlers led by Herriott and McGillivray established themselves in what is now Christchurch early in 1840 Their abandoned holdings were taken over by brothers William and John Deans 8 in 1843 who stayed The First Four Ships were chartered by the Canterbury Association and brought the first 792 of the Canterbury Pilgrims to Lyttelton Harbour These sailing vessels were the Randolph Charlotte Jane Sir George Seymour and Cressy The Charlotte Jane was the first to arrive on 16 December 1850 The Canterbury Pilgrims had aspirations of building a city around a cathedral and college on the model of Christ Church in Oxford 9 The name Christ Church was decided prior to the ships arrival at the Association s first meeting on 27 March 1848 The exact basis for the name is not known It has been suggested that it is named for Christchurch in Dorset England for Canterbury Cathedral or in honour of Christ Church Oxford The last explanation is the one generally accepted 5 At the request of the Deans brothers whose farm was the earliest European settlement in the area the river was named after the River Avon in Scotland which rises in the Ayrshire hills near to where their grandfather s farm was located 10 Captain Joseph Thomas the Canterbury Association s Chief Surveyor surveyed the surrounding area By December 1849 he had commissioned the construction of a road from Port Cooper later Lyttelton to Christchurch via Sumner 11 However this proved more difficult than expected and road construction was stopped while a steep foot and pack horse track was constructed over the hill between the port and the Heathcote valley where access to the site of the proposed settlement could be gained This track became known as the Bridle Path because the path was so steep that pack horses needed to be led by the bridle 12 Goods that were too heavy or bulky to be transported by pack horse over the Bridle Path were shipped by small sailing vessels some eight miles 13 km by water around the coast and up the Avon Heathcote Estuary to Ferrymead New Zealand s first public railway line the Ferrymead Railway opened from Ferrymead to Christchurch in 1863 Due to the difficulties in travelling over the Port Hills and the dangers associated with shipping navigating the Sumner bar a railway tunnel was built through the Port Hills to Lyttelton opening in 1867 13 ChristChurch Cathedral pictured in the c 1880s was constructed between 1864 and 1904 Christchurch became a city by royal charter on 31 July 1856 the first in New Zealand Many of the city s Gothic Revival buildings by architect Benjamin Mountfort date from this period Christchurch was the seat of provincial administration for the Province of Canterbury which was abolished in 1876 Christchurch buildings were damaged by earthquakes in 1869 1881 and 1888 14 1900 2000 Edit First ever aerial photograph of Christchurch taken by Leslie Hinge 1918 In 1947 New Zealand s worst fire disaster occurred at Ballantyne s Department Store in the inner city with 41 people killed in a blaze which razed the rambling collection of buildings 15 The Lyttelton road tunnel between Lyttelton and Christchurch was opened in 1964 16 Christchurch hosted the 1974 British Commonwealth Games Modern history Edit 2010 2012 earthquakes Edit Main articles 2010 Canterbury earthquake February 2011 Christchurch earthquake and June 2011 Christchurch earthquake The collapsed Pyne Gould Building Thirty of the building s two hundred workers were trapped within the building following the February 2011 earthquake 17 On Saturday 4 September 2010 a magnitude 7 1 earthquake struck Christchurch and the central Canterbury region at 4 35 am With its epicentre near Darfield west of the city at a depth of 10 kilometres 6 2 mi it caused widespread damage to the city and minor injuries but no direct fatalities 18 19 Nearly six months later on Tuesday 22 February 2011 a second earthquake measuring magnitude 6 3 struck the city at 12 51 pm Its epicentre was located closer to the city near Lyttelton at a depth of 5 km 3 mi 20 Although lower on the moment magnitude scale than the previous earthquake the intensity and violence of the ground shaking was measured to be IX Violent among the strongest ever recorded globally in an urban area 21 and 185 people were killed 22 23 People from more than 20 countries were among the victims 24 The city s ChristChurch Cathedral was severely damaged and lost its spire 25 26 The collapse of the CTV Building resulted in the majority of fatalities Widespread damage across Christchurch resulted in loss of homes major buildings and infrastructure Significant liquefaction affected the eastern suburbs and the total cost to insurers of rebuilding has been estimated at NZ 20 30 billion 27 28 There were continuing aftershocks for some time with 4 558 above a magnitude 3 0 recorded in the Canterbury region from 4 September 2010 to 3 September 2014 29 Particularly large events on 13 June 2011 30 23 December 2011 31 32 33 and 2 January 2012 34 all caused further damage and minor injuries but no further deaths Following the earthquakes over 1500 buildings in the city had been demolished or partly demolished by September 2013 35 Cherry blossom trees in Spring bloom and a historic water wheel located on a small island in the Avon River at the corner of Oxford Terrace and Hereford Street in the city centre The city experienced rapid growth following the earthquakes A Christchurch Central Recovery Plan guides rebuilding in the central city There has been massive growth in the residential sector with around 50 000 new houses expected to be constructed in the Greater Christchurch area by 2028 as outlined in the Land Use Recovery Plan LURP 2013 to 2018 Edit On 13 February 2017 two bush fires started on the Port Hills These merged over the next two days and the single very large wild fire extended down both sides of the Port Hill almost reaching Governors Bay in the south west and the Westmorland Kennedys Bush and Dyers Pass Road almost down to the Sign of the Takahe Eleven houses were destroyed by fire over one thousand residents were evacuated from their homes and over 2 076 hectares 5 130 acres of land was burned 36 2019 terrorist attacks Edit Main article Christchurch mosque shootings Fifty one people died from two consecutive terrorist attacks at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre by an Australian white supremacist carried out on 15 March 2019 37 38 39 40 41 Forty others were injured 42 The attacks have been described by Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern as one of New Zealand s darkest days 43 On 2 June 2020 the attacker pleaded guilty to multiple charges of murder attempted murder and terrorism 44 45 On 27 August he was sentenced to life in prison without parole the first time such a sentence was handed down in New Zealand 46 47 48 Geography Edit Satellite image showing Christchurch and surrounding areas View of the Christchurch region from the International Space Station Christchurch lies in Canterbury near the centre of the east coast of the South Island east of the Canterbury Plains It is located near the southern end of Pegasus Bay and is bounded to the east by the Pacific Ocean coast and the estuary of the Avon and Heathcote Rivers To the south and south east the urban portion of the city is limited by the volcanic slopes of the Port Hills separating it from Banks Peninsula To the north the city is bounded by the braided Waimakariri River Christchurch is one of a group of only four current cities in the world to have been carefully planned following the same layout of a central city square four complementing city squares surrounding it and a parklands area that embrace the city centre The first city built with this pattern was Philadelphia Later came Savannah and Adelaide before Christchurch 49 Christchurch has one of the highest quality water supplies in the world with its water rated among the purest and cleanest in the world 50 Untreated naturally filtered water is sourced via more than 50 pumping stations surrounding the city from aquifers emanating from the foothills of the Southern Alps 51 Central City Edit Main article Christchurch Central City Worcester Street and Cathedral Square from the Cathedral July snowfall on Cobham Intermediate School grounds At the city s centre is Cathedral Square surrounding the now earthquake damaged landmark Anglican cathedral Christ Church The area around this square and within the Four Avenues of Christchurch Bealey Avenue Fitzgerald Avenue Moorhouse Avenue and Deans Avenue 52 is considered to be the central business district CBD of the city The central city also has a number of residential areas including Inner City East Inner City West Avon Loop Moa Neighbourhood and Victoria but many of the residential buildings in the CBD were demolished following the February 2011 earthquakes Cathedral Square is located at the crossing of two major central streets Colombo Street and Worcester Street Cathedral Square the heart of the city hosted attractions such as until the February 2011 earthquake 53 the Wizard of New Zealand Ian Brackenbury Channell and evangelist Ray Comfort regular market days free standing food and coffee carts an aquarium pubs and restaurants and the city s chief tourist information centre it is expected that activities in Cathedral Square will increase as the rebuild progresses The Wizard of New Zealand now operates from New Regent Street 54 The central city also includes the pedestrianised sections of Cashel and High streets commonly known pre earthquakes as City Mall Refurbished in 2008 09 the mall featured especially designed seating flower and garden boxes more trees paving and an extension to the central city tram route The tram route extension was nearly complete when the February 2011 earthquake struck Following the earthquakes most buildings in Cashel Mall were demolished A shopping area called Re START opened on Cashel Street adjacent to Ballantyne s Department Store in October 2011 The Re START mall was made of colourful shipping containers that were converted to house retail stores The Bridge of Remembrance commemorating war dead stands at the western end of the mall was repaired rededicated on Anzac Day Monday 25 April 2016 55 56 The Cultural Precinct 57 provided a backdrop to a vibrant scene of ever changing arts cultural and heritage attractions within an area of less than one square kilometre The Arts Centre the Canterbury Museum and the Art Gallery are located in the Cultural Precinct The majority of the activities were free and a printable map was provided There areas are slowly being reopened follow earthquake repair and strengthening work In 2010 the Christchurch City Council released A City For People Action Plan a programme of work through to 2022 to improve public spaces within the central city to entice more inner city residents and visitors A primary action was to reduce the impact of motorised private vehicles and increase the comfort of pedestrians and cyclists The plan was based on a report prepared for the council by renowned Danish design firm Gehl Architects Since the 2011 Christchurch earthquake Wellington architect Ian Athfield has been selected to re plan although many varied suggestions have been promoted for rebuilding the central city 58 59 60 61 The Central City which was fully closed off following 22 February earthquake opened in stages and was fully reopened in June 2013 although there were still some streets closed off due to earthquake damage infrastructure repair work and damaged buildings 62 Inner suburbs Edit clockwise starting north of the city centre Mairehau Shirley Dallington Richmond Avonside Linwood Phillipstown Woolston Opawa Waltham St Martins Beckenham Sydenham Somerfield Spreydon Addington Riccarton Ilam Upper Riccarton Burnside Fendalton Bryndwr Strowan Merivale Papanui St Albans Edgeware Outer suburbs Edit clockwise starting north of the city centre Marshland Bottle Lake Burwood Parklands Prestons Highfield Waimairi Beach Avondale North New Brighton New Brighton Bexley now largely defunct Aranui Wainoni South Brighton Southshore Bromley Mt Pleasant Redcliffs Moncks Bay Clifton Richmond Hill Sumner Scarborough Hill Ferrymead Heathcote Valley Hillsborough Murray Aynsley Hill Huntsbury Cashmere Westmorland Hoon Hay Hillmorton Aidanfield Halswell Kennedys Bush Oaklands Westlake Longhurst Knight Stream Park Wigram Middleton Sockburn Hornby Hei Hei Broomfield Islington Yaldhurst Russley Avonhead Harewood Bishopdale Northcote Casebrook Redwood Regents Park Styx Mill Northwood Groynes Park Belfast Spencerville Brooklands Satellite towns Edit Leeston Lyttelton Governors Bay Diamond Harbour Tai Tapu Little River Lincoln Prebbleton Rolleston Templeton West Melton Rangiora Woodend Waikuku Pegasus Town Kaiapoi Kainga Pines Beach Akaroa Motukarara Climate Edit ChristchurchClimate chart explanation J F M A M J J A S O N D 44 22 12 44 22 12 53 20 10 53 17 7 63 14 4 59 11 1 63 11 1 58 12 2 42 15 4 48 17 6 48 19 8 50 21 11Average max and min temperatures in CPrecipitation totals in mmImperial conversionJFMAMJJASOND 1 7 72 53 1 7 71 53 2 1 68 50 2 1 63 44 2 5 58 39 2 3 53 34 2 5 51 33 2 3 54 36 1 7 58 39 1 9 62 43 1 9 66 47 2 70 51Average max and min temperatures in FPrecipitation totals in inches Christchurch has a temperate oceanic climate with a mild summer cool winter and regular moderate rainfall It has mean daily maximum air temperatures of 22 6 C 73 F in January and 10 9 C 52 F in July 63 Under the Koppen climate classification Christchurch has an oceanic climate Cfb Summer in the city is mostly warm but is often moderated by a sea breeze from the Northeast A record temperature of 41 6 C 107 F was reached in February 1973 A notable feature of the weather is the nor wester a hot fohn wind that occasionally reaches storm force causing widespread minor damage to property 64 Like many cities Christchurch experiences an urban heat island effect temperatures are slightly higher within the inner city regions compared to the surrounding countryside 65 In winter it is common for the temperature to fall below 0 C 32 F at night There are on average 80 days of ground frost per year 66 Snowfalls occur on average three times per year although in some years no snowfall is recorded 67 The coldest temperature recorded was 7 1 C 19 F on 18 July 1945 the third lowest recorded temperature of New Zealand s major cities 67 68 On cold winter nights the surrounding hills clear skies and frosty calm conditions often combine to form a stable inversion layer above the city that traps vehicle exhausts and smoke from domestic fires to cause smog 69 While not as bad as smog in Los Angeles or Mexico City Christchurch smog has often exceeded World Health Organisation recommendations for air pollution To limit air pollution the regional council banned the use of open fires in the city in 2006 70 In 2008 council prohibited the use of woodburners more than 15 years old while making funding available to upgrade domestic home heating systems Climate data for Christchurch Airport 1981 2010 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high C F 37 1 98 8 41 6 106 9 35 9 96 6 29 9 85 8 27 3 81 1 22 5 72 5 22 4 72 3 22 8 73 0 26 2 79 2 30 1 86 2 32 0 89 6 36 0 96 8 41 6 106 9 Mean maximum C F 31 0 87 8 31 4 88 5 28 7 83 7 25 4 77 7 22 1 71 8 20 3 68 5 18 2 64 8 19 7 67 5 22 3 72 1 25 0 77 0 27 2 81 0 29 8 85 6 33 9 93 0 Average high C F 22 6 72 7 21 9 71 4 20 3 68 5 17 4 63 3 14 3 57 7 11 7 53 1 10 9 51 6 12 4 54 3 14 8 58 6 16 9 62 4 18 9 66 0 21 1 70 0 16 9 62 4 Daily mean C F 17 3 63 1 16 8 62 2 15 0 59 0 11 9 53 4 9 0 48 2 6 4 43 5 5 7 42 3 7 2 45 0 9 3 48 7 11 4 52 5 13 5 56 3 15 8 60 4 11 6 52 9 Average low C F 11 9 53 4 11 6 52 9 9 6 49 3 6 5 43 7 3 7 38 7 1 1 34 0 0 6 33 1 2 0 35 6 3 9 39 0 6 0 42 8 8 0 46 4 10 5 50 9 6 3 43 3 Mean minimum C F 5 0 41 0 4 6 40 3 2 3 36 1 0 1 31 8 1 9 28 6 4 7 23 5 4 9 23 2 3 7 25 3 2 3 27 9 0 7 30 7 0 1 32 2 3 7 38 7 5 3 22 5 Record low C F 3 0 37 4 1 5 34 7 0 2 31 6 4 0 24 8 6 4 20 5 7 2 19 0 6 8 19 8 6 7 19 9 4 4 24 1 4 2 24 4 2 6 27 3 0 1 32 2 7 2 19 0 Average rainfall mm inches 35 9 1 41 43 0 1 69 45 8 1 80 44 2 1 74 57 7 2 27 57 6 2 27 64 7 2 55 62 1 2 44 40 8 1 61 48 9 1 93 46 3 1 82 46 8 1 84 593 8 23 38 Average rainy days 1 0 mm 5 9 5 4 6 3 6 7 7 8 8 0 8 2 7 3 6 1 6 9 6 6 7 1 82 3Average relative humidity at 9 am 72 5 79 0 80 9 83 9 86 3 87 2 87 8 85 8 78 7 73 9 70 5 71 3 79 8Mean monthly sunshine hours 237 9 195 0 191 2 162 6 139 7 117 1 127 1 153 9 169 5 203 8 223 7 219 9 2 141 4Percent possible sunshine 51 49 50 50 47 44 44 48 48 50 51 46 48Source 1 CliFlo 71 Source 2 Time and Date potential monthly daylight hours 72 73 Demographics Edit Boatsheds on the Avon River The area administered by the Christchurch City Council has a population of 394 700 June 2020 3 making it the second largest in New Zealand and the largest city in the South Island This comprises 383 200 people in the Christchurch urban area 3 170 people in the Lyttelton urban area 1 630 people in the Diamond Harbour urban area and 6 700 people in rural settlements and areas Historical populationYearPop p a 1981281 721 1986288 948 0 51 1991296 061 0 49 1996316 611 1 35 2001323 956 0 46 2006348 456 1 47 2013341 469 0 29 2018369 006 1 56 Source 74 75 Christchurch City had a population of 369 006 at the 2018 New Zealand census an increase of 27 537 people 8 1 since the 2013 census and an increase of 20 550 people 5 9 since the 2006 census There were 138 381 households There were 183 972 males and 185 034 females giving a sex ratio of 0 99 males per female The median age was 37 1 years 63 699 people 17 3 were aged up to 15 years 82 971 22 5 were 15 to 29 166 959 45 2 were 30 to 64 and 55 377 15 0 were 65 or older Ethnicities were 77 9 European Pakeha 9 9 Maori 3 8 Pacific peoples 14 9 Asian and 2 9 other ethnicities totals add to more than 100 since people may identfy with multiple ethnicities The proportion of people born overseas was 26 8 compared with 27 1 nationally Although some people objected to giving their religion 50 8 had no religion 36 3 were Christian and 6 7 had other religions Of those at least 15 years old 75 207 24 6 people had a bachelor or higher degree and 49 554 16 2 people had no formal qualifications The median income was 32 900 The employment status of those at least 15 was that 153 480 50 3 people were employed full time 46 011 15 1 were part time and 11 466 3 8 were unemployed 75 Culture and identity Edit Largest groups of overseas born residents 76 Nationality Population 2018 England 16 779Philippines 10 338China a 10 296India 7 404Australia 6 495South Africa 3 462South Korea 2 907Fiji 2 733Samoa 2 697United States 2 403 The following table shows the ethnic profile of Christchurch s population as recorded in the censuses held between 2001 and 2018 The percentages add up to more than 100 as some people counted themselves as belonging to more than one ethnic group Figures for 2006 refer to just Christchurch City not the whole urban area The substantial percentage drop in the numbers of Europeans in that census was mainly caused by the increasing numbers of people from this group choosing to define themselves as New Zealanders even though this was not one of the groups listed on the census form Ethnic groups of Christchurch City residents 2001 18 census 77 78 Ethnicity 2001 census 2006 census 2013 census 2018 censusNumber Number Number Number European 282 333 89 7 255 384 75 4 273 306 83 9 287 307 77 9Asian 17 625 5 6 26 634 7 9 30 717 9 4 54 984 14 9Maori 22 533 7 2 25 728 7 6 27 765 8 5 36 642 9 9Pacific peoples 7 674 2 4 9 465 2 8 10 101 3 1 14 178 3 8Middle Eastern Latin American African 1 974 0 6 2 859 0 8 3 384 1 0 5 580 1 5Other 87 lt 0 1 43 778 12 9 6 276 1 9 5 007 1 4Total people stated 314 883 338 772 325 719 369 006Not elsewhere included 9 195 2 8 9 687 2 8 15 750 4 6 0 0 0Economy EditFarming Edit Christchurch farmers market Riccarton beside Riccarton House 79 The agricultural industry has always been the economic core of Christchurch 80 Its surrounding farming countryside has long been the basis of its industry part of the original package sold to New Zealand immigrants 81 PGG Wrightson New Zealand s leading agribusiness is based in Christchurch 82 Its local roots go back to Pyne Gould Guinness an old stock and station agency serving the South Island 83 Other agribusinesses in Christchurch have included malting seed development and dressing wool and meat processing and small biotechnology operations using by products from meat works 80 Dairying has grown strongly in the surrounding areas with high world prices for milk products and the use of irrigation to lift grass growth on dry land With its higher labour use this has helped stop declines in rural population Many cropping and sheep farms have been converted to dairying Conversions have been by agribusiness companies as well as by farmers many of whom have moved south from North Island dairying strongholds such as Taranaki and the Waikato Cropping has always been important in the surrounding countryside Wheat and barley and various strains of clover and other grasses for seed exporting have been the main crops These have all created processing businesses in Christchurch In recent years regional agriculture has diversified with a thriving wine industry springing up at Waipara and beginnings of new horticulture industries such as olive production and processing Deer farming has led to new processing using antlers for Asian medicine and aphrodisiacs The high quality local wine in particular has increased the appeal of Canterbury and Christchurch to tourists 84 Industry Edit Christchurch is the second largest manufacturing centre in New Zealand behind Auckland the sector being the second largest contributor to the local economy 85 with firms such as Anderson s making steel work for bridges tunnels and hydro electric dams in the early days of infrastructure work Now manufacturing is mainly of light products and the key market is Australia with firms such as those pioneered by the Stewart family among the larger employers Before clothing manufacture largely moved to Asia Christchurch was the centre of the New Zealand clothing industry with firms such as LWR Industries The firms that remain mostly design and market and manufacture in Asia The city also had five footwear manufacturers but these have been replaced by imports In the last few decades technology based industries have sprung up in Christchurch 86 Angus Tait founded Tait Electronics a mobile radio manufacturer and other firms spun off from this such as Dennis Chapman s Swichtec In software Cantabrian Gil Simpson founded a company that made LINC and Jade programming languages and a management buyout spawned local firm Wynyard Group There have also been spin offs from the electrical department of the University of Canterbury engineering school These included Pulse Data which became Human Ware making reading devices and computers for blind people and those with limited vision and CES Communications encryption The Pulse Data founders had moved from the Canterbury University engineering school to work for Wormald Inc when they set up Pulse Data through a Management buyout of their division citation needed Spin off company Invert Robotics developed the world s first climbing robot capable of climbing on stainless steel aimed at the dairy tank inspection market 87 In recent times the University of Canterbury engineering school and computer science department play an important role in supplying staff and research for the technology industries and the Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology provides a flow of trained technicians and engineers Locally and nationally the IT sector is known not for its size the third largest in New Zealand but for producing innovative and entrepreneurial solutions products and concepts 88 Tourism Edit Tourism is also a significant factor of the local economy The close proximity of the ski fields and other attractions of the Southern Alps and hotels a casino and an airport that meet international standards make Christchurch a stopover destination for many tourists The city is popular with Japanese tourists 89 with signage around Cathedral Square in Japanese Gateway to the Antarctic Edit Antarctic exploration Edit Christchurch has a history of involvement in Antarctic exploration both Robert Falcon Scott and Ernest Shackleton used the port of Lyttelton as a departure point for expeditions and in the central city there is a statue of Scott sculpted by his widow Kathleen Scott Within the city the Canterbury Museum preserves and exhibits many historic artefacts and stories of Antarctic exploration The International Antarctic Centre provides both base facilities and a museum and visitor centre focused upon current Antarctic activities The United States Navy and United States Air National Guard augmented by the New Zealand and Australian air forces use Christchurch Airport as the take off point for the main supply route to McMurdo and Scott Bases in Antarctica The Clothing Distribution Center in Christchurch had more than 140 000 pieces of extreme cold weather gear for issue to nearly 2 000 US Antarctic Program participants in the 2007 08 season 90 Government EditLocal government Edit The Canterbury Provincial Council Building Christchurch s local government is a democracy with various elements including Christchurch City Council comprising the Mayor of Christchurch and 16 councillors elected in 16 wards Spreydon Cashmere Halswell Riccarton Hornby Fendalton Waimairi Papanui Innes Central Linwood Heathcote Harewood Burwood Coastal and Banks Peninsula Community boards six in the pre amalgamation city area each covering 2 3 wards with 2 members elected and one Councillor appointed from each Spreydon Cashmere Papanui Innes Linwood Central Heathcote Fendalton Waimairi Heathcote Coastal Burwood and one covering Banks Peninsula but with members elected from 4 subdivisions District councils in surrounding areas Selwyn and Waimakariri The Banks Peninsula district council was amalgamated into Christchurch City in March 2006 after a vote by the Banks Peninsula residents to disestablish in November 2005 Canterbury Regional Council known as Environment Canterbury including four Christchurch constituencies with two members from each constituency 91 District Health Board Canterbury with five members for Christchurch 92 Some of the local governments in Canterbury and the NZ Transport Agency have created the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy to facilitate future urban planning 93 Central government Edit Christchurch is covered by seven general electorates Banks Peninsula Christchurch Central Christchurch East Ilam Selwyn Waimakariri and Wigram and one Maori electorate Te Tai Tonga 94 each returning one member to the New Zealand House of Representatives As of the 2020 New Zealand general election there are five general electorate members of the Labour party and two members of the National party The Maori electorate is represented by the Labour Party Culture and entertainment Edit Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament partially demolished in the 2011 earthquake The Christchurch Art Gallery Christchurch Botanic Gardens Christchurch is a distinctly English city however it contains various European elements with strong Gothic Revival architecture As early settlers of New Zealand Maori culture is also prevalent in the city It features many public open spaces and parks river beds and cafes and restaurants situated in the city centre and surrounding suburbs Cinema Edit While historically most cinemas were grouped around Cathedral Square 95 only two cinemas remain there The Regent complex was rebuilt as Regent on Worcester in 1996 In 2009 Metro Cinemas opened in Worcester Street with three screens Only one of the first generation of suburban cinemas the Hollywood in Sumner remains open 96 The largest multiplexes were the Hoyts 8 in the old railway station on Moorhouse Avenue now demolished and Reading Cinemas also eight screens in the Palms shopping centre in Shirley Hoyts in Riccarton opened in 2005 97 with one of its screens for a time holding the record for the largest in New Zealand The Rialto Cinemas on Moorhouse avenue specialised in international films and art house productions The Rialto also hosted the majority of the city s various film festivals and was home to the local film society The Rialto was closed following the February 2011 earthquake The Christchurch Arts Centre includes two art house cinemas Cloisters and The Academy screening a wide selection of contemporary classic and foreign language films The Canterbury Film Society is active in the city 98 The Peter Jackson film Heavenly Creatures 1994 starring Melanie Lynskey and Kate Winslet was set in Christchurch 99 Parks and nature Edit The large number of public parks and well developed residential gardens with many trees has given Christchurch the name of The Garden City 100 Hagley Park and the 30 hectare 75 acre Christchurch Botanic Gardens founded in 1863 are in the central city with Hagley Park being a site for sports such as golf cricket netball and rugby and for open air concerts by local bands and orchestras To the north of the city is the Willowbank wildlife park Travis Wetland an ecological restoration programme to create a wetland is to the east of the city centre in the suburb of Burwood Orana Wildlife Park is New Zealand s only open range zoo sitting on 80 hectares of land located on the outskirts of Christchurch 101 Television Edit Television broadcasts began in Christchurch on 1 June 1961 with the launch of channel CHTV3 making Christchurch the second New Zealand city behind Auckland to receive regular television broadcasts In November 1969 CHTV3 was networked with its counterpart stations in Auckland Wellington and Dunedin for form NZBC TV the predecessor to today s TVNZ 1 Christchurch had its own regional television station Canterbury Television CTV was first formed in 1991 and ceased broadcasting on 16 December 2016 It aired both local national and international content including DW TV and Al jazeera World Since 19 December 2016 CTV has operated as a web based platform under the Star Media brand VTV a Korean TV channel airs in Christchurch also Auckland It offers English content about Korea from arirang World and Korean speaking content in SBS This channel broadcasts many of the latest dramas airing in Korea The city s main television transmitter is located atop Sugarloaf in the Port Hills due south of the city centre and broadcasts all major national television channels as well as the two local channels All television channels in Christchurch have been broadcast in digital since analogue switch off on 28 April 2013 Theatre Edit Christchurch has one full time professional theatre the Court Theatre 102 founded in 1971 Originally based in the Christchurch Arts Centre the Court Theatre has been located in the suburb of Addington in temporary accommodation following the 2011 earthquakes Alongside the Court the co operative and experimental Free Theatre Christchurch was established in 1979 and based in the Arts Centre from 1982 103 There is also an active recreational theatre scene with community based theatre companies such as the Christchurch Repertory Society 104 Elmwood Players 105 Riccarton Players 106 and Canterbury Children s Theatre 107 producing many quality shows The Ngaio Marsh Theatre located at the University of Canterbury hosts a range of student drama groups as well as other theatre groups The Isaac Theatre Royal was originally opened in 1863 and has since been rebuilt four times most recently following the 2011 Christchurch earthquake 108 The Isaac Theatre Royal reopened to the public on 17 November 2014 Music Edit The city is known for its many live acts 109 110 111 112 including a professional symphony orchestra 113 After the closure of Canterbury Opera in 2006 due to financial reasons in 2009 another professional opera company Southern Opera was founded After the 2010 and 2011 earthquaques it suspended its activities before merging with New Zealand Opera in 2013 114 Christchurch is a home for the experimental music scene of New Zealand The town is the home to such bands as The Bats The Narcs Shocking Pinks and Bailter Space There are usually buskers around the town square and Christchurch also hosts the World Buskers Festival in January each year 115 Singer songwriter Hayley Westenra launched her international career by busking in Christchurch 116 Some of New Zealand s acts such as Shapeshifter Ladi6 Tiki Taane and Truth are from Christchurch Promoters Venues and clubs such as Bassfreaks The Bedford and Dux Live regularly have international and New Zealand acts within the Drum and Bass scene performing live in Christchurch along with dance parties raves and gigs all featuring NZ and local Drum and Bass DJs with often two or three happening on a single night or weekend e g 2010 when UK Dubstep DJ Doctor P with Crushington was playing at The Bedford while simultaneously Concord Dawn featuring Trei and Bulletproof was playing at Ministry citation needed Independent Christchurch based radio station Pulzar FM is one of the few radio stations in New Zealand that plays Drum and Bass during the day In recent developments hip hop has effectively landed in Christchurch clarification needed In 2000 First Aotearoa Hip Hop Summit was held there And in 2003 Christchurch s Scribe released his debut album in New Zealand and has received five times platinum in that country in addition to achieving two number one singles 117 118 Venues Edit Weston House built in the Georgian style The Horncastle Arena is New Zealand s second largest permanent multipurpose arena seating between 5 000 and 8 000 depending on configuration It is home of the Mainland Tactix netball side It was the venue for the 1999 World Netball championships and has been host to many concerts The Christchurch Town Hall auditorium 2 500 seats opened 1972 was the first major auditorium design by architects Warren and Mahoney and acoustician Marshall Day It is still recognised as a model example of concert hall design with an excellent modern pipe organ The hall reopened on 23 February 2019 after being closed for eight years for repair after the significant damage caused by the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake Christchurch also has a casino 119 and there are also a wide range of live music venues 109 120 some short lived others with decades of history Classical music concerts were held at the Christchurch Music Centre until it was demolished as a result of earthquake damage The Piano was built to offer a variety of performance spaces for music and the arts 121 In late 2014 it was announced that a 284 million dollar project was underway to build a convention centre located on the block defined by Armagh Street Oxford Terrace Worcester Street and Colombo Street Gloucester Street will become part of the Centre itself but will allow for retail use and public access The convention centre will be able to host several events at the same time starting with space for up to 2 000 people this will complement facilities in Auckland and Queenstown The scheduled opening of the convention centre is uncertain 122 Sport EditTeams Edit Crusaders formerly the Canterbury Crusaders are a rugby union team based in Christchurch that compete in the Super Rugby competition The Canterbury Rugby Football Union which governs rugby union in Christchurch and the surrounding region fields a team that represents the city in the Mitre 10 Cup Canterbury Kings are Christchurch s men s cricket team in New Zealand s Super Smash while the Canterbury Magicians play in the counterpart women s tournament Canterbury Cavaliers and Cats play in the National Hockey League NHL Canterbury Tactix play in the national ANZ Premiership after the trans Tasman ANZ Championship netball league finished in 2016 Prior to 2008 the Canterbury Flames played in the national netball league competing for the National Bank Cup Canterbury United play in the New Zealand Football Championship Canterbury Rams play in the National Basketball League Canterbury Red Devils play in the New Zealand Ice Hockey League NZIHL In addition Christchurch Football Club an amateur rugby union club was founded in 1863 believed to be the oldest club of any code in New Zealand 123 Events Edit 1974 British Commonwealth Games 1982 Women s Cricket World Cup 1989 XVI World Games for the Deaf 1992 Cricket World Cup 1999 World Netball Championships 2000 Women s Cricket World Cup 2011 IPC Athletics World Championships 2015 Cricket World Cup 2021 Women s Cricket World CupVenues Edit Aerial view of Hagley Oval cricket ground North is the Botanic Gardens end East is the historic Umpires Pavilion side South is the Port Hills end and West is the Christ s College cricket ground end Addington Raceway at Addington has been a venue for harness racing since 1899 Racing is conducted by the New Zealand Metropolitan Trotting Club and it is regarded as the premier venue for the sport in New Zealand 124 Alpine Ice is an ice skating rink home to the Canterbury Red Devils It has hosted many national and international Ice Hockey tournaments figure skating and speed skating events The rink is home to Ice Sports in Canterbury in turn hosting numerous Ice Sports Clubs including the Canterbury Ice Hockey Association English Park in St Albans is the home venue for the Canterbury United Football team that plays in the national league Golf courses Christchurch has more than a dozen golf courses and has hosted the PGA Tour of Australasia Nationwide Tour co sanctioned Clearwater Classic NZ PGA Championship at Clearwater Resort since 2002 Rugby League Park Hagley Oval located within the southern portion of Hagley Park has been used on and off as a venue for local national and international cricket matches for decades and was upgraded in 2014 as part of preparation for the 2015 Cricket World Cup 125 This included the construction of a new pavilion and embankment for seating since which point the ground has returned to prominence as a dedicated cricket ground for all levels of the game Horncastle Arena in Addington Christchurch Hosted the 1999 Netball World Championships and continues to host international basketball and netball games Lancaster Park formerly Jade Stadium amp AMI Stadium was Christchurch s premier outdoor sporting ground which played host to rugby union in the winter months and cricket in the summer months It was home to the Crusaders Super Rugby and Canterbury Air New Zealand Cup rugby teams It was also used by the New Zealand national cricket team and occasionally hosted a New Zealand Warriors rugby league match Is had a capacity of around 40 000 people for sporting fixtures and around 50 000 for concerts Damaged during the 2011 February earthquake the facility s future is uncertain 126 Malvern Park in St Albans hosts inter high school competition matches as well as minor league matches Also training grounds for the Canterbury Crusaders Nunweek Park in Bishopdale is the main hockey venue in the city Porritt Park in Avonside was the main venue until the 2010 Canterbury earthquake when it was damaged by liquefaction Queen Elizabeth II Park was built for the 1974 British Commonwealth Games which Christchurch hosted It is used primarily as an athletics park but also contains a newly upgraded swimming pool complex It has hosted major concerts from bands such as AC DC and the Red Hot Chili Peppers The facility has been demolished due to damage sustained in the February 2011 earthquake 127 Riccarton Park is a major thoroughbred racing venue Denton Park is home for track cycling and the Canterbury Track Cycling Club There are several mountain biking venues in Christchurch including McLean s Island Bottle Lake Forest and the Christchurch Adventure Park which has a chair lift to take riders up to the top of Worsley s Hill to access the 22 downhill mountain bike tracks Ski fields Edit Skiing is popular and there are multiple ski fields an easy drive from Christchurch 128 including Mount Hutt Porters Mount Cheeseman Broken River Mount Olympus CraigieburnEducation EditFurther information List of schools in Christchurch The University of Canterbury is a tertiary education provider for Christchurch Students playing cricket at Christchurch Boys High School Ivey Hall at Lincoln University Secondary schools Edit Christchurch is home to the fourth largest school in New Zealand co educational state school Burnside High School with 2484 pupils Cashmere High School Papanui High School and Riccarton High School are other large schools There are four single sex state schools Shirley Boys High School Christchurch Boys High School Avonside Girls High School and Christchurch Girls High School Christchurch is also well known for several independent schools and church schools some of them of the traditional English public school type These include St Thomas of Canterbury College St Margaret s College Christ s College St Bede s College Marian College Catholic Cathedral College St Andrew s College Villa Maria College and Rangi Ruru Girls School Less conventional schools in the city include Unlimited Paenga Tawhiti Hagley Community College and the Christchurch Rudolf Steiner School Tertiary institutions Edit A number of tertiary education institutions have campuses in Christchurch or in the surrounding areas Ara Institute of Canterbury Lincoln University University of Canterbury University of Otago ChristchurchTransport EditSee also Public transport in Christchurch Christchurch is served by Christchurch Airport and by buses local and long distance and trains The local bus service known as Metro 129 is provided by Environment Canterbury The car however remains the dominant form of transport in the city as with the rest of New Zealand Christchurch has over 2 300 km of roads of this 360 km is unpaved and 43 km is motorway 130 Christchurch has three motorways consisting of the Christchurch Northern Motorway includes the Western Belfast Bypass Christchurch Southern Motorway and the Christchurch Lyttelton Motorway 131 132 Christchurch has an extensive bus network with bus routes serving most areas of the city and satellite towns Nearly all bus routes travelled through the central city Bus Exchange before the earthquake but due to reduced passenger numbers since the earthquakes especially in the central city the bus network was reorganised to direct more localised services to hubs such as major shopping centres where they connect to the central station via core bus routes Before the 2011 earthquakes in addition to normal bus services Christchurch also had a pioneering zero fare hybrid bus service the Shuttle in the inner city The service has been suspended following the earthquakes and it is unclear whether it will resume again in the future 133 Bus services are also available leaving Christchurch daily passenger bus services 134 operates between Dunedin and Christchurch on the State Highway 1 Historically Christchurch has been known as New Zealand s cycling city 135 and currently still attracts about 7 of commuters cycling The central city has very flat terrain and the Christchurch City Council has established a network of cycle lanes and paths such as the Railway Cycleway Post quake public consultation on rebuilding the city expressed a strong desire for a more sustainable transport system particularly greater use of cycling again and this has been reflected in the council s strategic transport plan 136 Christchurch Brill Tram No 178 on the heritage tramway in inner city Christchurch The Christchurch City Council has committed NZ 68 5 million to build a network of modern cycleways over the next five years citation needed There is a functioning tramway system in Christchurch but as a tourist attraction its loop is restricted to a circuit of the central city The trams were originally introduced in 1905 as a form of public transport and ceased operating in 1954 137 but returned to the inner city as a tourist attraction in 1995 However following the February 2011 earthquake the system was damaged and within the cordoned off Red Zone of the central city The tramway reopened in November 2013 on a limited route with plans to extend the tram route in 2014 first to reopen the complete pre earthquake circuit and then to open the extension travelling through the Re Start Mall and High Street which was being constructed when the 2011 earthquake struck There is a cable car system called the Christchurch Gondola which operates as a tourist attraction providing transport from the Heathcote Valley to the top of Mount Cavendish in the city s south east Rail services both long distance and commuter used to focus on the former railway station on Moorhouse avenue Commuter trains were progressively cancelled in the 1960s and 1970s The last such service between Christchurch and Rangiora ceased in 1976 After the reduction in services a new Christchurch railway station was established at Addington Junction The Main North Line railway travels northwards via Kaikoura to Picton and is served by the Coastal Pacific passenger train while the Main South Line heads to Invercargill via Dunedin and was used by the Southerner until its cancellation in 2002 The most famous train to depart Christchurch is the TranzAlpine which travels along the Main South Line to Rolleston and then turns onto the Midland Line passes through the Southern Alps via the Otira Tunnel and terminates in Greymouth on the West Coast This trip is often regarded as one of the ten great train journeys in the world for the amazing scenery through which it passes The TranzAlpine service is primarily a tourist service and carries no significant commuter traffic Christchurch Airport is located in Harewood 12 kilometres 7 5 mi to the northwest of the city centre The airport serves as the major base for the New Zealand Italian and United States Antarctic programs Utilities EditElectricity Edit The Christchurch City Council established the city s first public electricity supply in 1903 and the city was connected to Coleridge Power Station in 1914 Up until 1989 electricity distribution and retailing in Christchurch was the responsibility of four entities the Christchurch City Council Municipal Electricity Department MED Riccarton Electricity the Port Hills Energy Authority and the Central Canterbury Electric Power Board In 1989 all four companies entered a joint venture named Southpower The 1998 electricity sector reforms required all electricity companies to separate their distribution and retailing businesses Southpower retained its distribution business and sold its retail business to Meridian Energy In December 1998 the lines business was renamed Orion New Zealand 138 Today Orion owns and operates the local distribution network servicing the city with electricity fed into it from two Transpower substations at Islington and Bromley The electricity distribution network in Christchurch suffered significant damage in the 2011 earthquakes especially in the northeast where the 66 000 volt subtransmission cables supplying the area were damaged beyond repair 139 This necessitated major repairs to the existing infrastructure as well as building new infrastructure to supply new housing developments At the 2013 census 94 0 of Christchurch homes were heated wholly or partly by electricity the highest in the country 140 Sister cities EditSee also List of twin towns and sister cities in New Zealand Christchurch s sister cities are 141 Adelaide Australia 1972 Christchurch England United Kingdom 1972 Kurashiki Japan 1973 Seattle United States 1981 Songpa Seoul South Korea 1995 Wuhan China 2006 Christchurch also have friendly relations with Gansu Province in China 141 See also EditChristchurch City Holdings List of radio stations in Christchurch List of tallest buildings in Christchurch List of people from ChristchurchReferences EditNotes Edit Mainland China not including Hong Kong Urban Rural 2020 generalised GIS GIS Map Data Datafinder Geospatial Statistics Stats NZ Geographic Data Service datafinder stats govt nz Retrieved 25 October 2020 NZ Topographic Map Land Information New Zealand 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Mark McCarron Heather Christchurch shooting Alleged gunman Brenton Tarrant s trial delayed Newshub Archived from the original on 13 June 2020 Retrieved 2 January 2020 Man accused of Christchurch mosque shootings pleads not guilty to 51 murder charges Stuff 14 June 2019 Archived from the original on 24 July 2020 Retrieved 13 June 2019 R v Tarrant 2020 NZHC 2192 Christchurch High Court 27 August 2020 Lourens Marine 27 August 2020 Christchurch mosque gunman jailed until his last gasp Stuff Archived from the original on 27 August 2020 Retrieved 27 August 2020 New Zealand mosque shooter given life in prison for wicked crimes Reuters 27 August 2020 Archived from the original on 27 August 2020 Retrieved 27 August 2020 Goldsworthy Kerryn 2011 Adelaide NewSouth p 83 ISBN 9 7817 4224092 3 Community Outcomes Baseline Report Christchurch City Council 4 September 2010 Archived from the original on 16 October 2008 Retrieved 23 February 2011 Where our water comes from Christchurch City Council 4 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on 27 March 2011 Retrieved 26 March 2011 Rebuilding Christchurch with wood is a New Zealand solution Archived from the original on 13 June 2011 Retrieved 26 March 2011 Elevated Garden City rebuilding our beloved Christchurch for the 21st century Archived from the original on 23 March 2011 Retrieved 26 March 2011 Christchurch red zone cordon finally lifted The New Zealand Herald 30 June 2013 Archived from the original on 4 February 2015 Retrieved 31 January 2015 Mean Daily Maximum Temperatures 1971 2000 National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Archived from the original on 25 December 2008 Retrieved 25 January 2009 Canterbury s damaging nor wester Archived 11 January 2005 at the Wayback Machine from the Metservice NZ website Tapper NJ Tyson PD Owens IF Hastie WJ 1981 Modeling the Winter Urban Heat Island Over Christchurch New Zealand Journal of Applied Meteorology 20 4 289 doi 10 1175 1520 0450 1981 020 lt 0365 VKECOH gt 2 0 CO 2 ISSN 1520 0450 Mean Number Of Days Of Ground Frost Archived 14 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine from the NIWA website a b The Climate of Christchurch PDF New Zealand Meteorological Service Archived PDF from the original on 13 January 2014 Retrieved 6 November 2013 Summary climate information for selected New Zealand location Archived from the original on 27 July 2013 Retrieved 17 May 2014 Robinson Shelley 21 April 2015 Dirt arsenic and lead polluting air in industrial Christchurch Stuff Retrieved 7 December 2019 Open fires old woodburners banned in Christchurch Radio New Zealdn 1 April 2010 Archived from the original on 3 April 2015 Retrieved 31 January 2015 CliFlo National Climate Database NIWA Archived from the original on 27 November 2015 Retrieved 23 June 2015 Christchurch New Zealand Sunrise sunset and daylength Time and Date Archived from the original on 20 July 2015 Retrieved 17 July 2015 93781 Christchurch Aerodrome Aws New Zealand ogimet com OGIMET 27 January 2021 Retrieved 27 January 2021 Archived copy PDF Archived from the original PDF on 4 December 2013 Retrieved 24 November 2013 CS1 maint archived copy as title link a b Statistical area 1 dataset for 2018 Census Statistics New Zealand March 2020 Christchurch City 060 2018 Census place summary Christchurch City Birthplace detailed for the census usually resident population count 2006 2013 and 2018 Censuses RC TA SA2 DHB nzdotstat stats govt nz Retrieved 3 March 2020 Ethnic group total responses for the census usually resident population count 2001 2006 and 2013 Censuses RC TA AU Statistics New Zealand Archived from the original on 28 January 2018 Retrieved 5 March 2018 Ethnic group detailed total response level 3 by age and sex for the census usually resident population count 2006 2013 and 2018 Censuses RC TA SA2 DHB nzdotstat stats govt nz Retrieved 3 March 2020 Riccarton House and Bush Riccarton Bush Trust Archived from the original on 1 June 2019 Retrieved 1 June 2019 a b Agricultural Policy Reform and the Rural Economy in OECD Countries OECD Publishing 1998 p 290 ISBN 9789264162532 Historical Context Stats govt nz Archived from the original on 21 March 2015 Retrieved 9 March 2015 Hutching Gerard 9 August 2016 PGG Wrightson profit lifts in tough year Stuff Archived from the original on 16 August 2017 Retrieved 15 August 2017 About PGG Wrightson www pggwrightson co nz Archived from the original on 16 August 2017 Retrieved 15 August 2017 Guide Christchurch Wineries Wine Tasting amp Vineyards New Zealand www tourism net nz New Zealand Tourism Guide Archived from the original on 16 August 2017 Retrieved 15 August 2017 Manufacturing Jobs in Christchurch CDC Archived from the original on 30 March 2015 Retrieved 9 March 2015 Will tech companies stay committed to Christchurch A roll call 28 February 2011 Archived from the original on 11 June 2016 Retrieved 15 February 2016 Christchurch based Invert Robotics expands further into global markets New Zealand Research Commercialisation Success Stories kiwinet org nz Retrieved 30 December 2020 IT Jobs in Christchurch Archived from the original on 30 March 2015 Retrieved 9 March 2015 The Sister City link with Christchurch Archived 4 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine from christchurch org a Christchurch City Council website Looking good in the Antarctic Clothing Distribution Center in Christchurch New Zealand outfits USAP participants for the trip south The Antarctic Sun 10 January 2008 Archived from the original on 10 September 2011 Retrieved 13 January 2008 Environment Canterbury Archived 8 March 2005 at the Wayback Machine official regional council website Canterbury District Health Board Archived 12 February 2005 at the Wayback Machine official district health board website Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy Archived from the original on 4 June 2010 Retrieved 28 July 2010 Find my electorate Electoral Commission Archived from the original on 7 January 2016 Retrieved 29 December 2015 Regent Theatre Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine 1930 1976 from the Canterbury Film Society website Christchurch Cinemas Hollywood Theatre Canterburyfilmsociety org nz Archived from the original on 24 July 2011 Retrieved 23 February 2011 Hoyts Riccarton 2005 Canterbury Film Society Archived from the original on 2 March 2008 Retrieved 14 May 2008 Canterbury Film Society Archived 27 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine from the official Canterbury Film Society website Synopsis Retrieved 10 4 2015 Archived 7 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine Christchurch the Garden City Archived 28 August 2005 at the Wayback Machine from the Christchurch City Council website Open Range Zoo Christchurch NZ Orana Wildlife Park www oranawildlifepark co nz Retrieved 13 January 2021 Court Theatre Archived 9 November 1999 at the Wayback Machine from the official Court Theatre website 3 Actors and acting Te Ara The Encyclopedia of New Zealand teara govt nz Archived from the original on 6 September 2014 Retrieved 30 June 2014 Christchurch Repertory Repertory co nz Archived from the original on 24 July 2011 Retrieved 23 February 2011 Elmwood Players Elmwood Players Archived from the original on 4 December 2010 Retrieved 23 February 2011 Riccarton Players Riccarton Players Archived from the original on 5 November 2013 Retrieved 4 November 2013 Peter Rivers Canterbury Children s Theatre Malthouse co nz Archived from the original on 19 February 2011 Retrieved 23 February 2011 Isaac Theatre Royal History Archived from the original on 13 January 2015 Retrieved 23 April 2015 a b Christchurch s music scene venues Christchurch City Libraries Archived from the original on 18 May 2012 Retrieved 3 June 2012 Celebrating Christchurch Music in NZ Music Month Scoop Archived from the original on 4 January 2012 Retrieved 14 May 2008 NZ Music Month New Zealand Music Commission Archived from the original on 15 June 2012 Retrieved 3 June 2012 Homepage New Zealand Music Month May 2019 www nzmusicmonth co nz Archived from the original on 8 May 2012 Retrieved 3 June 2012 Christchurch Symphony Archived 21 January 2019 at the Wayback Machine from the official Christchurch Symphony Orchestra website Opera returns to Christchurch Retrieved 24 November 2019 Gates Charlie 16 January 2018 Make or break year for Christchurch s World Buskers Festival Stuff Archived from the original on 12 August 2019 Retrieved 13 August 2019 Hayley Westenra biography out Stuff co nz 31 January 2009 Archived from the original on 12 August 2019 Retrieved 12 August 2019 Henderson April K Dancing Between Islands Hip Hop and the Samoan Diaspora In The Vinyl Ain t Final Hip Hop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture ed by Dipannita Basu and Sidney J Lemelle 180 199 London Ann Arbor MI Pluto Press 2000 Aotearoa hiphop timeline Archived from the original on 25 October 2009 Christchurch Casino Archived 9 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine official Christchurch Casino website Christchurch Live Music Christchurch Music Industry Trust Archived from the original on 20 December 2017 Retrieved 14 May 2008 The Piano thepiano nz Retrieved 13 October 2020 Archived copy Archived from the original on 27 January 2016 Retrieved 15 March 2019 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Christchurch Park History Christchurch Park Archived from the original on 14 October 2008 About Us Addington Raceway amp Events Centre www addington co nz Archived from the original on 24 January 2019 Retrieved 19 March 2019 The Construction Hagley Oval Archived from the original on 21 February 2018 Retrieved 20 February 2018 Hadlee Stand to be bowled over Archived 16 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine 13 January 2012 Nick Tolerton stuff co nz QEII Park Recreation and Sport Centre Archived 12 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine CCC Website The best ski spots near Christchurch Stuff 26 May 2014 Retrieved 15 September 2020 Metro Metroinfo org nz Archived from the original on 22 July 2012 Retrieved 4 November 2013 Archived copy PDF Archived PDF from the original on 2 February 2018 Retrieved 21 July 2018 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Frequently asked questions NZ Transport Agency www nzta govt nz Archived from the original on 21 July 2018 Retrieved 21 July 2018 Project details NZ Transport Agency www nzta govt nz Archived from the original on 21 July 2018 Retrieved 21 July 2018 City congestion demands action The Press 12 November 2014 Archived from the original on 13 May 2015 Retrieved 3 June 2016 Christchurch To Dunedin Bus Knight Rider knightrider co nz Archived from the original on 13 January 2015 Retrieved 11 February 2015 About Christchurch The Town Imagined Victorian City 1877 1902 Janesoceania com 2 May 2011 Archived from the original on 15 July 2012 Retrieved 4 November 2013 Christchurch Transport Strategic Plan 2012 42 Ccc govt nz 3 May 2013 Archived from the original on 6 November 2013 Retrieved 4 November 2013 A Wheel on Each Corner The History of the IPENZ Transportation Group 1956 2006 Douglass Malcolm IPENZ Transportation Group 2006 Page 12 Company history Orion New Zealand Limited Archived from the original on 21 June 2015 Retrieved 4 May 2019 Power transformer to be installed in eastern Chch suburbs Newstalk ZB TVNZ 4 March 2011 Archived from the original on 4 March 2011 Retrieved 17 December 2017 CS1 maint bot original URL status unknown link 2013 Census QuickStats about housing data tables Statistics New Zealand 18 March 2014 Archived from the original on 29 January 2019 Retrieved 21 October 2018 a b Sister Cities Programme ccc govt nz Christchurch City Council Retrieved 19 November 2020 Bibliography Edit Reed A W 2002 The Reed dictionary of New Zealand place names Auckland Reed Books ISBN 0 790 00761 4 Rice Geoffrey with assistance from Jean Sharfe 1999 Christchurch changing an illustrated history Christchurch Canterbury University Press ISBN 0 908812 53 1 pbk External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Christchurch Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Christchurch Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica article about Christchurch Christchurch City Council official council website Christchurch and Canterbury official tourism guide and visitor information Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Christchurch amp oldid 1021679722, wikipedia, wiki, book,


, library,


, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.
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