Byzantine Ottoman wars Language Watch Edit This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Byzantine Ottoman wars news newspapers books scholar JSTOR November 2016 Learn how and when to remove this template message The Byzantine Ottoman wars were a series of decisive conflicts between the Ottoman Turks and Byzantines that led to the final destruction of the Byzantine Empire and the rise of the Ottoman Empire In 1204 the Byzantine capital of Constantinople was sacked and occupied by the Fourth Crusaders an important moment of the Christian East West Schism The Byzantine Empire already weakened by misrule was left divided and in chaos 1 Byzantine Ottoman warsPart of the rise of the Ottoman Empire and the decline of the Byzantine EmpireClockwise from top left Walls of Constantinople Ottoman Janissaries Byzantine flag Ottoman bronze cannonDate1265 1479 LocationAnatolia BalkansResultOttoman victory Fall of the Byzantine Empire Fall of the Empire of Trebizond Rise of the Ottoman EmpireBelligerentsOttoman Beylik then Sultanate since 1362 vassals Serbian DespotateByzantine Empire Despotate of the Morea Catalan mercenaries Ottoman defectors Republic of Genoa Republic of Venice Kingdom of Sicily Empire of Trebizond Despotate of Epirus Principality of Theodoro Kingdom of Hungary Papal States Serbian Despotate Taking advantage of the situation the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum began seizing territory in Western Anatolia until the Nicaean Empire was able to repulse the Seljuk Turks from the remaining territories still under Roman rule Eventually Constantinople was re taken from the Latin Empire in 1261 by the Nicaean Empire The position of the Byzantine Empire in Europe remained uncertain due to the presence of the rival kingdoms of the Despotate of Epirus Serbia and the Second Bulgarian Empire This combined with the reduced power of the Sultanate of Rum Byzantium s chief rival in Asia led to the removal of troops from Anatolia to maintain Byzantium s grip on Thrace 2 The weakening of the Sultanate of Rum brought no long term advantage to the Empire as nobles known as ghazis began setting up fiefdoms at the expense of the Byzantine Empire While many Turkish beys participated in the conquest of Byzantine and Seljuk territory the territories under the control of one such bey Osman I posed the greatest threat to Nicaea and to Constantinople Within 90 years of Osman I s establishment of the Ottoman beylik the Byzantines lost all their Anatolian territory 3 and by 1380 Byzantine Thrace was also lost to the Ottomans By 1400 the once mighty Byzantine Empire was nothing more than the Despotate of the Morea a few Aegean islands and a strip of land in Thrace in the immediate vicinity of the capital The Crusade of Nicopolis in 1396 Timur s invasion in 1402 and the final Crusade of Varna in 1444 allowed a ruined Constantinople to stave off defeat until it finally fell in 1453 With the conclusion of the war Ottoman supremacy in the eastern Mediterranean was established Contents 1 Rise of the Ottomans 1265 1328 2 Byzantium counter 1328 1341 3 Balkan invasion and civil war 1341 1371 4 Byzantine civil war and vassalage 1371 1394 4 1 Fall of Philadelphia 4 2 Vassalage 5 Resumption of hostilities 1394 1424 6 Ottoman victory 1424 1453 7 Causes of the Byzantine defeat 7 1 Latin intervention 7 2 Byzantine weakness 7 3 Ottoman strengths 8 Consequences 9 See also 10 Notes 11 ReferencesRise of the Ottomans 1265 1328 Edit East Mediterranean c 1263 4 5 KEY Dark green Ottoman domain by the 1300s dotted line indicates conquests up to 1326 Purple Byzantine Empire Light green Turkic lands Blue Cilicia Red pink Latin statesMain article Rise of the Ottoman Empire Following Michael VIII Palaiologos reconquest of Constantinople in 1261 the Byzantine Empire was left in a grave position There was plenty of talk among the Latin states of the Greek mainland and other regions of retaking Constantinople for the Latin Empire 6 whilst to the north the main threat came from Serbian expansion into the Balkans by king Stefan Uros I 7 What was once a strong frontier under the Komnenian dynasty at the Danube river now threatened Constantinople itself To solve these problems Michael Palaeologus began consolidating his rule he had the younger co emperor John IV blinded which resulted in much resentment 6 To counter this the Byzantine Emperor installed a new Patriarch of Constantinople Germanus III ordering him to lift an excommunication that had been placed against him by the former Patriarch Arsenios Autoreianos and to submit to the authority of Rome in order to alleviate the Latin threat 6 As the Byzantine Empire continued the conquest of Latin territory the Turks under Osman I began their raids into Byzantine Anatolia Sogut and Eskisehir were taken in 1265 and 1289 respectively 2 Michael Palaeologus was unable to deal with these early setbacks due to the need to transfer troops to the West In 1282 Michael Palaeologus died and his son Andronicus II took power The death of the old Byzantine Emperor came as a relief for the society at large his policy of Latin appeasement to the Church in Rome heavy taxation and military expenditure placed a severe burden on the people As the Ottoman Turks began taking land from the Empire they were seen as liberators of Anatolians and many soon converted to Islam undermining the Byzantine s Orthodox power base 8 Andronicus rule was marked by incompetence and short sighted decisions that in the long run would damage the Byzantine Empire beyond repair He began to debase the Byzantine hyperpyron resulting in a reduction of the value of the Byzantine economy taxes were decreased for the Powerful i e landed aristocracy and instead placed upon the Knight class Pronoia To popularize his rule he repudiated the union of the Orthodox and Catholic Churches decreed by the Second Council of Lyon in 1274 thereby further increasing hostilities between the Latins and the Byzantines 9 Andronicus II took a deep interest in preserving the Anatolian lands of Byzantium and ordered construction of forts in Asia Minor and vigorous training of the army 9 The Byzantine Emperor ordered that his court be moved to Anatolia to oversee the campaigns there and instructed his General Alexios Philanthropenos to push back the Turks Early successes were rendered useless when Alexios staged an unsuccessful coup leading to his blinding and the end of his campaigns This allowed the Ottomans to lay siege to Nicaea in 1301 A further defeat on Andronicus son Michael IX and the Byzantine general George Mouzalon occurred at Magnesia and Bapheus in 1302 9 Despite this Andronicus tried once more to strike a decisive blow back at the Turks this time hiring Catalan mercenaries Under the guidance of Michael IX and the leadership of Roger de Flor the 6 500 strong Catalan Company in the spring and summer of 1303 managed to drive back the Turks The mercenaries onslaught drove the Turks back from Philadelphia to Cyzicus in the process causing great destruction to the Anatolian landscape Once again these gains were thwarted by internal matters Roger de Flor was assassinated and in revenge his company began pillaging the Anatolian countryside When they finally left in 1307 to attack Byzantine Thrace the locals welcomed the Ottomans who once again began blockading key fortresses in Asia Minor 9 The Ottomans were able to build on their military success due to the numerous divisions amongst their opponents Many of the peasant classes in Anatolia saw the Ottomans as the better master 8 10 Byzantine Empire at the time of Andronicus III s assumption of power 2 11 After these defeats Andronicus was in no position to send substantial forces In 1320 Andronicus II s grandson Andronicus III was disinherited following the death of his father Michael IX the Emperor s son and heir apparent 12 The following year Andronicus III retaliated by marching on Constantinople and was given Thrace as an appanage He kept on pressing for his inheritance and in 1322 was made co emperor This culminated in the Byzantine civil war of 1321 1328 in which Serbia backed Andronicus II and the Bulgarians backed his grandson Eventually Andronicus III emerged triumphant on May 23 1328 As Andronicus III consolidated his hold on Byzantium the Ottomans succeeded in taking Bursa from the Byzantines in 1326 2 Byzantium counter 1328 1341 EditMain article Siege of Nicomedia The Ottoman Sultanate operated vast numbers of skilled troops and conscripts Andronicus III s reign was to be marked by Byzantium s last genuine and promising attempt at restoring the glory that was once Rome In 1329 Byzantine troops were sent to meet the Ottoman forces 13 who had been blockading and in effect laying siege to Nicaea since 1301 3 Byzantine counter attacks coupled with the scale of Nicaea s defenses had frustrated the Ottomans attempts at taking any cities The fate of Nicaea was sealed when the Byzantine relief army was defeated at Pelekanos on 10 June 1329 3 In 1331 Nicaea surrendered 3 resulting in a massive blow considering that it was the capital of the Empire 70 years prior Once again the Byzantines military power was depleted and Andronicus III was forced into diplomacy as his grandfather was before him in return for the safety of the remaining Byzantine settlements in Asia Minor tribute would be paid to the Ottomans Unfortunately for the Byzantine Empire this did not stop the Ottomans from laying siege to Nicomedia in 1333 the city finally fell in 1337 3 Despite these setbacks Andronicus III was able to score a few successes against his opponents in Greece and Asia Minor Epirus along with Thessaly were subjugated 13 In 1329 the Byzantines captured Chios and in 1335 secured Lesbos Nonetheless these isolated Islands were isolated exceptions to the general trend of increasing Ottoman conquests Furthermore none of the Islands were a part of the Ottoman domain their capture demonstrates the potential that the Byzantines had at the time of Andronicus III Byzantine military ability would be further weakened by Serbian expansions 13 into recent acquisitions by Andronicus III Epirus and finally by a devastating civil war that would subjugate the Byzantine Empire as a vassal to the Ottomans Balkan invasion and civil war 1341 1371 Edit The Balkans and Anatolia in ca 1355 Byzantium has lost her cities in Asia Minor and Macedonia and Epirus have been conquered by Dushan s Serbia while the nascent Ottoman emirate has consolidated its hold over Bithynia Andronicus III died in 1341 leaving his 10 year old son John V to rule 14 A regency was set up with John Cantacuzenus the young Emperor s mother Anna of Savoy and the Patriarch John XIV Kalekas Rivalries between Kalekas and Cantacuzenus led to a destructive civil war in which Cantacuzenus emerged triumphant at Constantinople in February 1347 During this time plague earthquakes 15 and Ottoman raiding continued until only Philadelphia remained in Byzantine hands and only so by payment of a tribute Throughout the civil war the Byzantines on both sides employed Turks and Serbs with mercenaries pillaging at will 16 leaving much of Macedonia in ruin and in the hands of the newly created Serbian Empire Following this victory Kantakouzenos ruled as co emperor with John V This dual rule eventually failed and the two waged a new civil war further diminishing what was left of Byzantium s integrity in the eyes of her troublesome neighbors John VI Cantacuzenus emerged triumphant once again and replaced the now exiled John V Palaeologus with his son Matthew Cantacuzenus as junior co emperor However the Turks under Osman I s son Orhan I now came into play by capturing the fort of Kallipolis Gallipoli in 1354 17 18 and gaining access to the European mainland The arrival of the seemingly unbeatable Ottoman soldiers surrounding Constantinople caused a panic in Constantinople capitalized by John V who with the assistance of the Genoese staged a coup and ousted John VI Cantacuzenus in November 1354 As a result John VI would later become a monk 17 The civil war did not end there Matthew Cantacuzenus now obtained troops from Orhan and began a bid for taking Constantinople His capture in 1356 ended his dreams of becoming Emperor and with it came an ephemeral defeat for the Ottomans who had favored the overthrow of John V 17 Following the end of the civil conflict came a small lull in fighting between the expanding Ottomans and Byzantines In 1361 Didymoteichon fell to the Turks 17 Orhan s successor Murad I was more concerned with his Anatolian positions However just like Alp Arslan of the Seljuk Turks Murad I left the taking of Byzantine territory to his vassals with Philippopolis falling after major campaigning between 1363 4 and Adrianople succumbing to the Ottomans in 1369 19 The Byzantine Empire was in no position to launch any decent counter attack or defence of these lands by now the Ottomans had become supremely powerful Murad I crushed an army of Serbians on 26 September 1371 at the Battle of Maritsa 19 leading to the end of Serbian power The Ottomans were now poised to conquer Constantinople In an attempt to stave off defeat John V appealed to the Pope for support offering submission to Rome in return for military support Despite publicly confessing the Roman Catholic Faith in St Peter s Basilica John V received no help John V therefore was forced to turn to reason with his enemies the Ottomans Murad I and John V then came to an agreement whereby Byzantium would provide regular tribute in troops and money in exchange for security 20 Byzantine civil war and vassalage 1371 1394 EditBy now the Ottomans had essentially won the war Byzantium was reduced to a few settlements other than Constantinople and was forced to recognize its vassal status to the Ottoman Sultan 21 This vassalage continued until 1394 However whilst Constantinople had been neutralized the surrounding Christian powers were still a threat to the Ottomans and Asia Minor was not under complete Ottoman control The Ottomans continued their thrust into the Balkans proving to be great conquerors in Europe as they were in Anatolia in 1385 Sofia was captured from the Bulgarians 2 20 and Nis was taken the following year Other smaller states were subjugated as vassals including the Serbs Serbian resistance was crushed at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 much of Bulgaria was taken in 1393 by Bayezid I 20 the Thunderbolt and in 1396 the last bastion of Bulgarian independence was wiped out when Vidin fell Map of the Middle East c 1389 2 Byzantium purple consists of little other than Constantinople Following the occupation of Gallipoli the Ottomans Dark Green rapidly spread across the Balkans annexing southern parts of Serbia in the northwest and giving them a major advantage over their Turkic Green rivals in Anatolia Ottoman advances into the Balkans were aided by further Byzantine civil conflict this time between John V Palaeologus and his eldest son Andronicus IV 20 With Ottoman aid from Murad I John V was able to blind Andronikus IV and his son John VII Palaeologus in September 1373 Andronicus escaped with his son and secured Murad s aid by promising a higher tribute than John V s 22 The civil strife continued as late as September 1390 though potential for conflict continued until 1408 John V eventually forgave Andronicus IV and his son in 1381 angering his second son and heir apparent Manuel II Palaeologus He seized Thessalonika alarming the Ottoman Sultan in liberating parts of Greece from Ottoman rule The death of Andronicus IV in 1385 and the capitulation of Thessalonika in 1387 to Hayreddin Pasha encouraged Manuel II Palaeologus to seek the forgiveness of the Sultan and John V His increasingly close relationship with John V angered John VII who saw his right as the heir threatened John VII launched a coup against John V but despite Ottoman and Genoese aid his reign lasted mere five months before he was toppled by Manuel II and his father Fall of Philadelphia Edit Whilst the civil war was raging the Turks in Anatolia took the opportunity to seize Philadelphia in 1390 marking the end of Byzantine rule in Anatolia although by now the city was far from Imperial rule The city had long been under only nominal Imperial rule and its fall was of little strategic consequence to the Byzantines whose Emperor had to suffer the humiliation of accompanying the Sultan during the campaign Vassalage Edit Following John V s death Manuel II Palaeologus was able to secure his throne and establish good relations with the Sultan becoming his vassal In return for Ottoman acceptance of his reign Manuel II was forced to dismantle the fortifications at the Golden Gate something that he did not take lightly to 23 Resumption of hostilities 1394 1424 EditIn 1394 relations between the Byzantines and the Ottomans changed for the worse and the war between the two resumed when the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid ruled 1389 1402 ordered the execution of Manuel II 23 after the Emperor attempted to reconcile with his nephew John VII The Ottoman Sultan then later changed his decision and demanded that a mosque and a Turkish colony be established in Constantinople 23 Manuel II not only refused this he also refused to pay the Sultan tribute and went so far as to ignore the Sultan s messages leading to a siege of the city in 1394 Manuel II called for a Crusade which came in 1396 Under the future Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund 3 24 the Crusade was crushed at Nicopolis in 1396 The defeat convinced Manuel II to escape the city and travel to Western Europe for aid 25 During this time the reconciled John VII led the city s successful defence against the Ottomans The siege was finally broken when Timur of the Chagatai Mongols led an army into Anatolia dismantling the network of beyliks loyal to the Ottoman Sultan At the Battle of Ankara Timur s forces routed Bayezid I s forces a shocking defeat for which no one was prepared In the aftermath the Ottoman Turks began fighting each other led by Bayezid s sons 26 The Byzantines wasted no time exploiting the situation and signed a peace treaty with their Christian neighbours and with one of Bayezid s sons 27 By signing the treaty they were able to recover Thessalonika and much of the Peloponnese The Ottoman civil war ended in 1413 when Mehmed I with the support of the Byzantine Empire defeated his opponents 27 Along with the humiliation the Byzantine tribute to the Ottomans of 300 000 silver coins would have been all the more difficult with the economy in decline The rare amity established between the two states would not last the death of Mehmed I and the rise of Murad II in 1421 coupled with the ascent of John VIII to the Byzantine throne led to a deteriorated change in relations between the two Neither leader was content with the status quo John VIII made the first and foolish move by inciting a rebellion in the Ottoman Empire a certain Mustafa had been released by the Byzantines and claimed that he was Bayezid s lost son 27 Despite the odds a sizable force had mustered in Europe under his banner defeating Murad II s subordinates Murad II s furious reply eventually smashed this upstart and in 1422 began the Siege of Thessalonica and Constantinople 26 27 John VIII then turned to his aging father Manuel II for advice The result was that he incited yet another rebellion in the Ottoman ranks this time supporting Murad II brother s claim Kucuk Mustafa The seemingly promising rebellion had its origins in Asia Minor with Bursa coming under siege After a failed assault on Constantinople Murad II was forced to turn back his army and defeat Kucuk With these defeats the Byzantines were forced once more into vassalage 300 000 coins of silver were to be delivered to the Sultan as tribute on an annual basis 28 Ottoman victory 1424 1453 Edit The Ottoman Empire in 1451 By this point all of Byzantium s major cities had fallen to the Ottomans who occupied almost half of Anatolia and most of the Balkans The Ottomans faced numerous opponents between 1424 and 1453 Tied down by the siege of Thessalonika the Ottomans had to contend with the Serbs under George Brankovic the Hungarians under John Hunyadi and the Albanians under George Kastrioti Skanderbeg 24 29 This resistance culminated into the Crusade of Varna of 1444 which despite much local support and deception a peace treaty was unilaterally revoked by the Hungarians was defeated In 1448 and 1451 there was a change in the Byzantine and Ottoman leaderships respectively Murad II died and was succeeded by Mehmed the Conqueror whilst Constantine XI Palaiologos succeeded John VIII Constantine XI and Mehmed did not get along well the former s successful conquests of Crusader territory in the Peloponnese alarmed the latter who had since subjugated as vassals the crusaders in the region and Mehmed had around 40 000 soldiers sent to nullify these gains Constantine XI threatened to rebel against Mehmed unless certain conditions were met by the Sultan 30 regarding the status quo Mehmed responded to these threats by building fortifications in the Bosporus and thus closed Constantinople from outside naval assistance The Ottomans already controlled the land around Constantinople and so they began an assault on the city on 6 April 1453 Despite a union of the Catholic and Orthodox Churches the Byzantines received no official aid from the Pope or Western Europe with the exception of a few soldiers from Venice and Genoa England and France were in the concluding stages of the Hundred Years War The French did not wish to lose their advantage in the fight by sending knights and the English were in no position to do so Spain was in the final stages of the Reconquista The Holy Roman Empire never centralized enough behind the Hohenstaufen to unite the principalities had exhausted what could be spared at Varna Further fighting among the German princes and the Hussite wars seriously reduced the willingness of most to perform a crusade Poland and Hungary were key participants at Varna and the defeat there along with the Polish Teutonic Wars kept them busy and unwilling for further commitments citation needed Other than these major European powers the only others were the Italian city states Genoa and Venice were both enemies of the Ottomans but also of each other The Venetians considered sending their fleet up to attack the fortifications guarding the Dardanelles and the Bosporus thereby relieving the city but the force was too small and arrived too late The Ottomans would have overpowered any military assistance provided by one city even one as large and powerful as the Venetian Republic In any case some 2 000 mercenaries mostly Italian under Giovanni Giustiniani Longo 31 arrived to assist in the defence of the city The city s entire defence fell to these mercenaries and 5 000 militia soldiers raised from a city whose population had been seriously eroded by heavy taxation plague and civil conflict 32 Though poorly trained the defenders were well armed with many weapons 31 except for any cannons to match the Ottoman s own artillery The city s largest church the Hagia Sophia was converted into a mosque Today it serves as a Museum of Constantinopolitan legacy The city s fall was not a result of the Ottoman artillery nor their naval supremacy many Italian ships were able to aid and then escape the city citation needed The Fall came about due to the combined weight of overwhelming odds stacked against the city outnumbered by more than 10 to 1 the defenders were overcome by sheer attrition as well as the skill of the Ottoman Janissaries As the Ottomans continued their seemingly unsuccessful and costly assaults many in their camp began to doubt the success of the siege history had shown the city to be invincible to Ottoman siege citation needed In an effort to raise morale the Sultan then made a speech 33 reminding his troops of the vast wealth and pillaging of the city to come An all out assault captured the city on May 29 1453 As the Ottomans fanned out to sack the city their naval discipline began to collapse and many Genoans and Venetians escaped in vessels from the city including Niccolo Barbaro 34 a Venetian surgeon present at the siege who wrote All through the day the Turks made a great slaughter of Christians through the city The blood flowed in the city like rainwater after a sudden storm and the corpses of Turks and Christians were thrown into the Dardanelles where they floated out to sea like melons along a canal Byzantium s last years saw the loss of recent territories After the siege the Ottomans went on to take Morea in 1460 and Trebizond in 1461 35 With the fall of Trebizond came the end of the Roman Empire the Palaeologan dynasty continued to be recognized as the rightful emperors of Constantinople by the crowned heads of Europe until the 16th century when the Reformation the Ottoman threat to Europe and decreased interest in crusading forced European powers to recognize the Ottoman Empire as masters of Anatolia and the Levant After the Fall of Trebizond also the Theodoro in 1475 and with Vonitsa the Despotate of Epirus in 1479 36 were conquered by the Ottomans Causes of the Byzantine defeat EditLatin intervention Edit The Latin presence in the Balkans seriously undermined the Byzantines ability to coordinate their efforts against the Ottoman Turks This is exemplified by Michael VIII Palaeologus whose attempts to drive the Latins out of Greece led to the abandonment of the Anatolian borders which allowed several beyliks as well as the Turks of Osman I to raid and settle former Byzantine lands Andronicus II s campaigns in Anatolia though it obtained some military success was constantly thwarted by events in the west of the Empire 32 In any event the Byzantines were forced to choose between Papal and Latin threat of attack or an unpopular union which was exploited by numerous rival claimants as cause for a coup against the Byzantine Emperor Romantic portrayal of the Last Crusader Increasing Muslim victories Christian defeats and European transgressions coupled with the Reformation and Counter Reformation led to the end of the Crusades Nonetheless towards the mid and late 14th century the Byzantines began to receive nominal aid from the West This was little more than sympathy toward a fellow Christian power fighting a Muslim power and despite two Crusades the Byzantines received as much help from Rome as we did from the Mamluk sultan of Egypt 37 The Mamluk Sultanate in the 13th century had been one of the most determined powers to remove Christian influence in the Middle East and raiding by Cyprus did not change this in the 14th and 15th centuries Byzantine weakness Edit Following the Fourth Crusade the Byzantines were left in an unstable position The capture of Constantinople in 1261 and subsequent campaigning did not come at a good time the weakening of the Sultanate of Rum resulted in many beyliks breaking away as autonomous states such as the Emirate founded by Osman I Although this weakening of power gave the Empire of Nicaea a temporary free hand it was nothing more than a small respite not capitalized as much as it could have been opinion citation needed In order to implement these Greek re conquests Michael VIII was forced to levy crushing taxes on the Anatolian peasantry 10 in order to pay for the expensive army that modeled around the Komnenian army This led to much peasant support for the Turks whose system resulted in fewer taxes initially After Michael VIII s death the Byzantines suffered from constant civil strife early on The Ottomans suffered civil conflict as well but this occurred much later on in the 15th century by that time the Byzantines were too weak to reconquer much territory This is in contrast to the civil strife of Byzantium occurring at a time 1341 71 when the Ottomans were crossing into Europe through a devastated Gallipoli and surrounding the city thus sealing its fate as a vassal When attempts were made to break this vassalage the Byzantines found themselves out matched and at the mercy of Latin assistance which despite two Crusades ultimately amounted to nothing citation needed Ottoman strengths Edit The Ottomans combined several different fighting methods and technologies These Sipahis were exactly unique for western knights due to their weapons and battlefield experiments citation needed The Ottomans had great diplomatic skill and ability to raise vast numbers of troops Initially their raiding gave them great support from other Turks near Osman s small domain In time however as the Turks began to settle in land poorly defended by the Byzantines 38 they were able to exploit the hardships of the peasant classes by recruiting their aid Those that did not assist the Ottomans were raided themselves Eventually the cities in Asia Minor cut off from the outside surrendered and the Ottomans soon mastered the art of siege warfare It was the Ottomans skill with dealing with their opponents that made them very powerful very quickly They would subjugate their opponents as vassals rather than destroy them 20 otherwise they would have exhausted themselves in the process The exacting of tribute from conquered states in the form of children and money was effective in forcing subjugation over conquest Coupled with this the entire region was composed of many states Bulgaria Serbia Latin states who would just as soon fight each other as the Ottomans and realized too late that the Ottoman forces defeated them by integrating them in a network of subordinate states citation needed Consequences EditThe fall of Constantinople came as a shock to the papacy which ordered an immediate counter attack in the form of a crusade Only Philip the Good Duke of Burgundy responded but under the condition that a powerful monarch assist him however none would do so 39 Pope Pius II then ordered another crusade Again no substantial efforts were seen by any of Europe s major leaders of the time This forced the Pope himself to lead a crusade His death in 1464 led to the disbanding of the crusade at the port of Ancona 39 The Fall also had many implications in Europe the influx of Greek science and culture into Europe by those escaping the Ottomans was a crucial factor in catalyzing the European Renaissance citation needed The failed attempts at defeating the Ottomans at Nicopolis and Varna the loss of the Holy Land without Byzantium the Crusades could not re supply en route and the lack of a genuine counter attack led many including Martin Luther into believing that the Turks were God s punishment against the sins of Christians How shamefully the pope has this long time baited us with the war against the Turks taken our money destroyed so many Christians and made so much mischief 40 Nonetheless by 1529 Europe began to rise to the threat of the Ottomans Martin Luther changing his views wrote that the Scourge of God 40 had to be fought with great vigour by secular leaders rather than as Crusades initiated by the Papacy With the Ottomans hold on Constantinople de facto recognized by Europe s lack of action the Ottomans went on to facilitate further conquests in Europe and in the Middle East Their power finally reached a peak in the mid 17th century Their success through the Janissaries became their new weakness conservative and extremely powerful Ottoman reform was difficult to implement whilst European armies became increasingly more resourceful and modernized As a result Russian and Austrian attempts to contain the Ottoman threat became more and more a formality until the official dissolution of the Empire after World War I citation needed See also Edit Byzantine Empire portal War portal Byzantine empire Ottoman empire Ottoman Navy Arab Byzantine wars Byzantine Seljuq wars List of conflicts in the Middle EastNotes Edit Phillips 2004 a b c d e f Parker 2005 pp 70 1 a b c d e f Grant 2005 p 122 Madden 2005 p 162 Grant 2005 p 93 a b c Mango 2002 pp 255 57 Mango 2002 p 260 a b Bentley amp Ziegler 2006 a b c d Mango 2002 pp 260 61 a b Madden 2005 p 179 Mango 2002 p 41 Mango 2002 p 262 a b c Mango 2002 p 263 Mango 2002 p 265 Mango 2002 p 266 Mango 2002 p 267 a b c d Mango 2002 p 268 Madden 2005 p 182 a b Mango 2002 p 269 a b c d e Mango 2002 p 270 Mango 2002 p 264 Mango 2002 p 271 a b c Mango 2002 p 273 a b Madden 2005 p 184 Mango 2002 p 274 a b Sherrard 1967 p 167 a b c d Mango 2002 pp 274 76 Mango 2002 p 276 Mango 2002 p 279 Mango 2002 p 280 a b Sherrard 1967 p 168 a b Mango 2002 Sherrard 1967 p 169 Grant 2005 p 123 Mango 2002 p 283 Fine 1987 p 563 Madden 2005 Turnbull 2003 p 12 a b Madden 2005 p 189 a b Madden 2005 p 193 References EditBartusis Mark C 1997 The Late Byzantine Army Arms and Society 1204 1453 University of Pennsylvania Press ISBN 0 8122 1620 2 Bentley Jerry H Ziegler Herbert F 2006 Traditions amp Encounters A Global Perspective on the Past McGraw Hill ISBN 978 0 07 299835 1 Fine John Van Antwerp January 1987 The late medieval Balkans a critical survey from the late twelfth century to the Ottoman Conquest University of Michigan Press ISBN 978 0 472 10079 8 Grant R G 2005 Battle a Visual Journey Through 5000 Years of Combat London Dorling Kindersley ISBN 0756613604 Laiou Angeliki E 1972 Constantinople and the Latins The Foreign Policy of Andronicus II 1282 1328 Harvard University Press ISBN 978 0 674 16535 9 Madden Thomas F 12 September 2005 Crusades The Illustrated History University of Michigan Press ISBN 978 0 472 03127 6 Mango Cyril 2002 The Oxford History of Byzantium New York Oxford UP Nicol Donald MacGillivray 1993 The Last Centuries of Byzantium 1261 1453 Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 43991 6 Parker Geoffrey 2005 Compact history of the world London Times Books Phillips Johnathan 2004 The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople History Today www historytoday com Sherrard Philip 1967 Byzantium Great Ages of Man Time Life International Treadgold Warren T 1997 A History of the Byzantine State and Society Stanford University Press ISBN 0 8047 2630 2 Turnbull Stephen 2003 The Ottoman Empire 1326 1699 New York Osprey Vryonis Speros S 1971 The decline of medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor And the process of Islamization from the eleventh through the fifteenth century University of California Press ISBN 978 0 520 01597 5 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Byzantine Ottoman wars amp oldid 1027905235, wikipedia, wiki, book,


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