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Brown Lake Stradbroke Island Language Watch Edit Brown Lake Bummeria is a perched lake on North Stradbroke Island in South East Queensland Australia 4 The ecosystem is an example of a coastal non floodplain sand lake 5 and is characterised by acidic water nutrient poor and sandy soil shrub like vegetation and wet heathland 3 Brown LakeBummeria 1 Brown LakeLocationNorth Stradbroke Island QueenslandCoordinates27 29 24 S 153 25 57 E 27 49000 S 153 43250 E 27 49000 153 43250 Coordinates 27 29 24 S 153 25 57 E 27 49000 S 153 43250 E 27 49000 153 43250TypePerched 2 Primary inflowsPrecipitation 3 Basin countriesAustraliaMax length1 km 0 62 mi SettlementsDunwich Amity Point Lookout Brown Lake is of geographical significance possessing ecological value 5 The geomorphology of the ecosystem is representative of the unique parabolic dune ridge systems that formed during the Pleistocene epoch 6 As a perched lake the hydrological operations of Brown Lake are highly diverse and complex 2 The lake is also of cultural significance to the Aboriginal population of North Stradbroke Island the Quandamooka people as they possess a spiritual and physical relationship with the ecosystem 1 The indigenous population care for and protect the landscape sharing traditional environmental management knowledge 7 8 Brown Lake s cultural heritage and ecological value along with the environmental damage associated with tourism has led to increased conservation 7 The Queensland Government and the Quandamooka Yoolooburrabee Aboriginal Corporation QYAC have proposed an improved environmental management plan combining traditional and contemporary management practices 7 Contents 1 Geography 2 Localities around Brown Lake 3 Hydrology 4 Aquatic fauna 4 1 Macro invertebrates 4 1 1 Fish 4 1 1 1 Decapod crustacea 5 Flora 6 Natural history 6 1 Fish migration 6 1 1 Invasive species 6 1 1 1 Lepironia articulata 7 Aboriginal significance 8 Environmental threats 9 Ecosystem management 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksGeography EditBrown Lake is 1 km in length and is located 4 km east of Dunwich a small town on North Stradbroke Island 4 Brown Lake is in a subtropical climatic region experiencing a wet season in the winter and a dry season in the summer 4 The mean daily temperature for the area is 15 29 C in summer and 9 20 C in winter 2 and the average annual rainfall is 1668 mm 4 Geologically Brown Lake exists on a parabolic beach ridge system that formed during the Quaternary glacial and interglacial cycles of the Pleistocene epoch 6 The cold climate interval of the epoch caused a periodic lower sea level which exposed the sea bed of the coastal heathland to strong south easterly winds that carried and deposited sediment which eventually accumulated to form the dune ridges on which Brown Lake developed 6 Perched lakes are formed via geological processes They occur in sunken landforms depressions when an impermeable layer of sand combined with decomposed organic material becomes cemented as precipitates of mineral matter fill in pore spaces transforming sediment into rock 3 This cemented layer is known as coffee rock and it prevents rainwater from escaping the depression percolating through to the regional aquifer forming a perched lake 5 The sand at Brown Lake is quartz sand 6 and the yellow brown colouring of the sand is caused by the sesquioxide coating on the quartz grains 9 Podzol soil supports the health and growth of the vegetation at Brown Lake 6 Developed from quartz rich sand podzol soil is sandy in texture and is characterised as a well aerated well drained and acidic soil 6 The soil is also nutrient deficient which is largely due to leaching 6 Localities around Brown Lake EditEncompassing Brown Lake are three townships Dunwich 10 Amity 11 and Point Lookout 12 City PopulationDunwich 885 10 Amity 387 11 Point Lookout 713 12 Hydrology Edit Brownish tea colour of Brown Lake s water As a perched lake Brown Lake contains high levels of dissolved organic matter resulting in the water system being acidic in nature possessing a PH level less than 6 5 The high level of dissolved organic content contributes to the water colour of Brown Lake staining the lake a brownish tea colour characterising the lake as dystrophic 5 Water systems receive nutrients from the sediment surrounding the ecosystem and at Brown Lake the sand and soil that support the ecological community possess a low nutrient supply characterising the lake as oligotrophic 5 Perched lakes are recharged and replenished via rainfall infiltration 2 Accordingly pro longed periods of low rainfall often lead to decreased water levels however studies show that Brown Lake s water level has been relatively stable remaining at a normative level due to the large rainfall infiltration that occurred during the January 1975 cyclonic event 2 The small fluctuation in water level that does occur at Brown lake is most likely a result of water seeping through the lakebed 2 Aquatic fauna EditBrown Lake supports a diverse population of aquatic fauna inhabiting macroinvertebrates fish and decapod crustacea 13 The taxa of aquatic biota occupying the ecosystem are of conservation significance as they are representative of rare acid adapted marine life existing in humic water systems 14 13 Macro invertebrates Edit Macro invertebrates inhabiting the area include 13 Acarina Aeshnidae Atyidae Baetidae Calamoceratidae Ceratopogonidae Chaoboridae Cladocera Coenagrionidae Copepoda Corixidae Dugesiidae Dytiscidae Gerridae Gomphidae Hydroptilidae Leptoceridae Lestidae Libellulidae Limnichidae Mesoveliidae Nepidae Notonectidae Orthetrum boumiera 15 Chironominae TanypodinaeFish Edit Gambusia holbrooki small non indigenous fish 13 Hypseleotris galii a native gudgeon 13 Decapod crustacea Edit Caridina indistincta C1 13 Flora EditThe vegetation surrounding Brown Lake is composed of riparian grass and small plant species characterising the ecosystem as a coastal wet heathland and shrub dominated area however there is some presence of larger trees 6 Flora supported by the ecosystem include 16 Gahnia sieberiana Empodisma minus Gleichenia spp Blechnum indicum Lepironia articulata Baumea spp Juncus spp Eleocharis spp Natural history EditFish migration Edit Up until 10 years ago Brown Lake was a fish less wetland 13 Both natural and physical disruptions to the ecosystem have contributed to two fish species migrating to the lake the Gambusia holbrooki and Hypseleotris galii 13 A natural disruption that has contributed to the migration of the fish species is Charles Darwin s 1882 duck feet theory 13 The concept posits that eggs belonging to marine life can be transported from one ecosystem to another via plant material that has become attached to a waterbird s feet or mouth depositing eggs as they roam between wetlands 17 Natural hydrological processes have also contributed to the fish migrating to Brown Lake Storm events and major flooding can often force egg dispersal as bodies of water transport and deposit colonists 13 Physical disruptions that have contributed to the fish species migrating to Brown Lake are associated with human activity 13 The recreational boating that occurs at Brown Lake is a contributing factor to fish migration as boats passing through the ecosystem that have visited other water systems on North Stradbroke Island either accidentally or deliberately transport eggs and live cargo into the lake 13 In 2014 a large bushfire occurred near Brown Lake and a fire fighter helicopter landed at the ecosystem to suck up water utilising the lake as a source for water bombs to extinguish the fire 18 It is theorised that this helicopter accidentally deposited live fish into Brown Lake from its last filling point 13 Female Gambusia holbrooki Invasive species Edit In the 1920s the Gambusia holbrooki was known for its ability to control mosquito populations and consequently the species was deliberately released into South East Queensland waters 19 Contemporary research revealed that the species mosquito repelling ability was no greater than the native marine life that fed on the insect classifying the fish as a pest 19 The introduction of this pest species is impacting the aquatic fauna at Brown Lake through competition and predation threatening the biodiversity and equilibrium of the ecosystem 20 21 Lepironia articulata Edit The Lepironia articulata commonly referred to as grey sedge is a perennial grass like plant that typically encompasses lake systems forming a dense and thick swards 22 5 The flower on the plant is reddish brown in colour cylindrical in shape and points sideways 5 The species plays a significant role in the functioning of the Brown Lake ecosystem as the submerged parts of Lepironia articulata provide a habitat for the macroinvertebrates and fish present at Brown lake 5 Also decaying Lepironia articulata is a valuable food source for Brown Lake s fauna 5 Aboriginal significance Edit Australian Aboriginal rock painting of The Rainbow Serpent Brown Lake Bummiera is of cultural significance to the Indigenous population of North Stradbroke Island the Quandamooka people as they possess a spiritual and physical relationship to the ecosystem engaging with the landscape through ritual activities beliefs and values which have been passed down and maintained through Law and the Dreaming 1 In fact the Quandamooka Yoolooburrabee Aboriginal Corporation QYAC describes the lake as one of the most spiritual and sacred places for the Quandamooka People 23 The Aboriginal people of the Brown Lake area the Quandamooka people associate the area very strongly with women and children only women can speak for Brown Lake and women are responsible by Law to care for manage the lake and its resources 1 Brown Lake is also a ceremonial place at which women only ritualistic activities take place 1 For example the Rainbow Serpent which is a symbol of water fertility and well being in aboriginal culture is known to inhabit Brown Lake and as a sign of respect to this spirit and to the old ancestors watching over the lake the Quandamooka women would ask permission before they would enter the lake Ripples on the water meant permission was denied while a smooth lake meant women and children were free to enter 24 Environmental threats Edit Tourists swimming at Brown Lake Brown Lake is a popular tourist destination at which a range of recreational activities take place including picnics barbecues camping boating and swimming 5 Tourism is threatening Brown Lake s ecosystem as the high visitation rates cause nutrification 25 direct nutrient enrichment through the infiltration of chemicals in urine soaps detergents shampoos sunscreen and other human product 5 The increased nutrient supply causes the production of algal blooms which negatively impact water systems causing water quality to decline and creating an unbalanced ecosystem threatening the equilibrium of aquatic habitats 5 26 North Stradbroke Island holds major deposits of valuable minerals such as ilmenite monazite zircon and rutile 5 Consequently mining is a frequent occurrence in the area encompassing Brown Lake negatively impacting the environment through habitat degradation pollution and excessive withdrawal of water which can potentially lead to loss of lakes due to ruptures at the base of the groundwater aquifer 5 27 Bushfires and fire management practices such as hazard reduction back burning threaten Brown Lake s ecosystem 5 28 The fauna and flora of Brown Lake can be heavily impacted through the raised temperatures habitat destruction and siltation that occurs during fire processes 5 Also bushfires often result in an excessive amounts of organic matter such as ash and leaf littler entering water systems which can increase the biological oxygen demand BOD of a water body and alter the natural nutrient cycle impacting flora and fauna 5 Ecosystem management EditBrown Lake possesses high conservation value exhibiting cultural and ecological significance 7 5 Protected areas or buffer zones are extremely effective in maintaining and protecting an ecosystem conserving and nurturing an areas biodiversity and cultural value for future generations 7 The Queensland Government and Quandamooka Yoolooburrabee Aboriginal Corporation GYAC have included Brown Lake in a protected area expansion strategy that will combine traditional and contemporary management strategies acknowledging the value of the intimate knowledge indigenous populations possess of the land and sea 7 The introduction of traditional management practices is evident through the first planned cultural burn at Brown Lake In 2020 in order reduce fuel and aid recovery of culturally significant plant species 29 an all women team from the Quandamooka Yoolooburrabee Aboriginal Corporation and Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service engaged in a cultural burn 29 See also Edit Queensland portal List of lakes in Australia North Stradbroke IslandReferences Edit a b c d e Moult L 2012 To just be here Aboriginal relationships to and management of freshwater at Bummiera North Stradbroke island Australian Archaeology 74 74 114 JSTOR 23621539 a b c d e f Cox M E James A Hawke A Specht A Raiber M Taulis M 2011 North Stradbroke Island 3D hydrology surface water features settings and groundwater links Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 117 47 64 a b c Coastal and subcoastal non floodplain sand lake Perched Report Department of Environment and Science 2013 Retrieved 15 April 2021 a b c d Soil Indicators of Queensland Wetlands Brown Lake North Stradbroke Island PDF Report Department of Environment and Science 2013 Retrieved 15 April 2021 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Saunders M 2010 Wetland management profile coastal non floodplain sand lakes PDF Report Queensland Wetlands Program Retrieved 10 June 2021 a b c d e f g h Wallum Freshwater Biogeographic Province Report Department of Environment and Science 2013 Retrieved 15 April 2021 a b c d e f Minjerribah Protected Area Expansion Strategy PDF Report Department of Environment and Science 2019 Retrieved 10 June 2021 Moore T 18 October 2016 Quandamooka dreaming targets big dollars from tourism Brisbane Times Retrieved 10 June 2021 Sullivan L A Koppi T J 1998 Iron staining of Quartz Beach Sand in Southeastern Australia Journal of Coastal Research 14 3 992 999 JSTOR 4298851 a b 2016 Census QuickStats Dunwich L Australian Bureau of Statistics 2016 a b 2016 Census QuickStats Amity Australian Bureau of Statistics 2016 a b 2016 Census QuickStats Point Lookout Australian Bureau of Statistics 2016 a b c d e f g h i j k l m Marshall J C Negus P M Steward A L McGregor G B 2011 Distributions of the freshwater fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates of North Stradbroke Island are differentially influenced by landscape history marine connectivity and habitat preference Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 117 239 260 Holland A Duivenvoorden L J Kinnear S H W 2015 Effect of key water quality variables on macroinvertebrate and fish communities within naturally acidic wallum streams Marine and Freshwater Research 66 1 50 59 doi 10 1071 MF13285 Watson J A L Arthington A H 1978 A new species of Orthetrum Newman from dune lakes in Eastern Australia Odonata Libellulidae Australian Journal of Entomology 17 2 151 157 doi 10 1111 j 1440 6055 1978 tb02223 x Regional ecosystem details for 12 2 15 Department of Environment and Science 2021 Retrieved 20 April 2021 Green A J 2016 The importance of waterbirds as an overlooked pathway of invasion for alien species Diversity and Distributions 22 2 239 247 doi 10 1111 ddi 12392 JSTOR 24817470 Atfield C Calligeros M 6 January 2014 North Stradbroke Island fire flares up Brisbane Times a b Eastern gambusia Department of Primary Industries Retrieved 16 April 2021 Becker A Laurenson L J B Jones P L Newman D M 2005 Competitive Interactions between the Australian Native Fish Galaxias maculatus and the Exotic Mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki in a Series of Laboratory Experiments Hydrobiologia 549 1 187 196 doi 10 1007 s10750 005 6425 y S2CID 39112583 Pyke G H 2005 A Review of the Biology of Gambusia affinis and G holbrooki Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 15 4 339 365 doi 10 1007 s11160 006 6394 x S2CID 36599447 Ikusima I 1978 Primary production and population ecology of the aquatic sedge Lepironia articulata in a tropical swamp Tasek Bera Malaysia Aquatic Botany 4 269 280 doi 10 1016 0304 3770 78 90024 4 Annual Report 2017 2018 PDF Report Quandamooka Yoolooburrabee Aboriginal Corporation 2018 Archived from the original PDF on 24 August 2020 Women gather for special cultural burn on Minjerribah Department of Environment and Science 2020 Archived from the original on 14 May 2021 Retrieved 14 May 2021 Ward B B Arp D J Klotz M G eds 2011 Nitrification Washington D C ASM Press ISBN 9781843395461 Sarkar S K 2018 Marine Algal Bloom Characteristics Causes and Climate Change Impacts Singapore Springer Singapore doi 10 1007 978 981 10 8261 0 ISBN 978 981 10 8261 0 S2CID 134191603 Burgin S 2020 Sand mining on North Stradbroke Island an Islander view of the rehabilitation of the lands International Journal of Environmental Studies 77 6 954 968 doi 10 1080 00207233 2020 1727232 S2CID 214101645 Sharples J J Cary G J Fox Hughes P Mooney S Evans J P Fletcher M S Fromm M Grierson P F McRae R Baker P 2016 Natural hazards in Australia extreme bushfire Climatic Change 139 1 85 99 doi 10 1007 s10584 016 1811 1 S2CID 19984338 a b Johnston R 13 July 2020 Planned cultural burn on Minjerribah women s site a first for all female team NITV News External links Edit Media related to Brown Lake at Wikimedia CommonsRetrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Brown Lake Stradbroke Island amp oldid 1028441387, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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