NiNa.Az
  • Baptism of Pocahontas

  • Embarkation of the Pilgrims

  • Signing of the Declaration of Independence

  • Surrender of General Burgoyne

  • Washington Resigning his Commission

  • Interest Bearing Notes

    Art and engraving on Interest Bearing Notes
    Banknote Value/series Vignette Vignette information[nb 5]
    $10 One-year 5% (1864) Peace
    $50 Two-year 5% (1864) Caduceus
    (eng) Alfred Jones
    (art) John W. Casilear
    $100 Two-year 5% (1864) Farmer and Mechanic
    In the Turret
    $1,000 One-year 5% (1863) Justice
    $1,000 Two-year 5% (1863) Guerriere and Constitution [nb 15]
    $5,000 One-year 5% (1863) The Altar of Liberty
    (eng) Luigi (Louis) Delnoce

    Other

    Art and engraving on Other Notes
    Banknote Value/series Vignette Vignette information[nb 5]
    $10 Legal Tender (1880) Introduction of the Old World to the New
    $5 Legal Tender (1880) The Pioneer
    (eng) Gugler
    $500 Gold certificate (1882) Eagle

    Portraits

    Portraits
    Banknote[nb 16] Value/series Portrait Vignette information[nb 5]
    $1 Legal Tender (1880) George Washington
    $2 Legal Tender (1880) Thomas Jefferson
    (Eng) Charles Burt[39]
    $5,000 Gold certificate (1870) James Madison
    (Eng) Alfred Sealey[40]
    $100 Silver certificate (1891) James Monroe
    (Eng) Luigi (Louis) Delnoce[41]
    $500 Legal Tender (1869) John Quincy Adams
    (Eng) Charles Burt[42]
    $10,000 Gold certificate (1875) Andrew Jackson
    (Eng) Alfred Sealey[40]
    $500 Gold certificate (1870) Abraham Lincoln
    $5,000 4% Consol Bond (1877) Andrew Johnson
    $20,000 U.S. Funded Loan Bond (1891) Zachary Taylor
    $20 Legal Tender (1869) Alexander Hamilton
    (Eng) Charles Burt[43]
    $0.50 Fractional currency Samuel Dexter
    $0.50 Fractional currency William Crawford
    (Eng) Charles Burt[44]
    $0.25 Fractional currency Robert Walker
    (Eng) Charles Burt[44]
    $0.10 Fractional currency William Meredith
    (Eng) Charles Burt[44]
    $20,000 4% Consol Bond (1877) Salmon P. Chase
    $20 Silver certificate (1886) Daniel Manning
    (Eng) Lorenzo Hatch[45]
    $2 Silver certificate (1891) William Windom
    (Eng) William Phillips[46]

    Footnotes

    1. ^ Spencer M. Clark, the first Superintendent of the National Currency Bureau (later the Bureau of Engraving and Printing), claimed that the idea to use historic images from the capitol rotunda had been his suggestion to the Secretary in the winter of 1861–1862, but he was not acknowledged as the author of the proposal.[19]
    2. ^ This is a standard description for one note quoted verbatim
      For the obverse of the twenty-dollar ($20) notes, there shall be engraved upon the left-hand portion of the note a vignette representing the "Battle of Lexington," and on the opposite, or right-hand end of the note, a copy of a symbolic design entitled "Loyalty." Between these two vignettes shall be engraved two legends, as follows- In the upper part of the space between the vignettes the following legend, viz: "National currency. This note is secured by the bonds of the United States, deposited with the Treasurer at Washington," together with the engraved fac similes of the signatures of the Treasurer of the United States and of the Register of the Treasury.
      In the lower part of the space between the vignettes the following words "The First National Bank of Washington D.C. will pay the bearer twenty dollars, on demand, at their office, in the city of Washington, D.C., and suitable blanks shall be left for the date and for the signature of the president and cashier of the association.
      In the upper right-hand corner of the note the figure 20 is to be engraved, of suitable size, in a white letter with black shade, and a space to be left for imprinting the treasury seal upon the right-hand end of the note; the whole to be surrounded by a suitable border of alternate leaf and vine work, and of tablets, in which the figure 20 and the letters twenty shall be often repeated in different characters.
      For the reverse of the twenty-dollar ($20) note, there shall be engraved in a central elliptical vignette, two and a half by five (2½ by 5) inches, a fac simile of Chapman's painting in the Capitol, entitled "Baptism of Pocahontas." Above this vignette shall be engraved the legend expressing the uses of the note, and below it the legend expressing the penalties for counterfeiting. The words of these legends to be prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury.
      At each end of the vignette oval spaces one by one and a half ( 1 by 1½ ) inch shall be left. For one of these spaces there shall be engraved a suitable die or bed-plate for surface printing, and a roll made therefrom (after its approval by the Secretary of the Treasury) of the national shield; and for the other space the coat of arms of the State from which the note is to be issued. These dies shall not be transferred to the note plates, but twelve (12) transfers therefrom shall be made upon separate plates of steel, and these, with their dies, &c., shall be delivered to the Comptroller of the Currency, or held subject to his order, as hereinbefore provided.
      The words "First National Bank" shall be engraved above the central vignette, and the words "Washington, D. C.," shall be engraved below it, the two lines so engraved to be between the vignette and the legends.
      The corners shall be filled with proper counters, indicating the denomination of the note, and the interstices be filled with work of a character to add as much as practicable to the security of the note against counterfeiting; the whole to be surrounded by a suitable border, its exterior size to be the same as the obverse, viz., 3 by 7 inches.[25]
    3. ^ Anti-counterfeiting devices of the period (1869–76) included embedding silk fibers as well as (seen in the $2 and $5 examples) the use of blue tinted paper.[26][27]
    4. ^ Each National Bank Note, in addition to the engraved Treasury signatures, has the signature of the bank President (or Vice President) and Cashier (or Assistant Cashier).
    5. ^ a b c d eng. is the engraver of the work; art. is the creator of an original work from which the engraving was derived.
    6. ^ It is possible that Burt was inspired by (eng) Joseph Andrews, who in turn may have been emulating a painting by Peter F. Rothermel.
    7. ^ In addition to Stars and Stripes, the reverse of the $2 NBN has the vignette Sir Walter Raleigh Presenting Corn and Tobacco to the English (engraved by Luigi (Louis) Delnoce).
    8. ^ Vignettes on the obverse of the $5 NBN depict Columbus in Sight of Land and Presentation of an Indian Princess to the Old World (both engraved by Charles Burt).
    9. ^ At least three different issued engravings were prepared by James Bannister, Louis Delnoce, and Walter Shirlaw.[32]
    10. ^ The front right vignette on the $10 NBN is Liberty and Progress (designed by Walter Shirlaw, engraved by G.F.C. Smillie).
    11. ^ Vignettes on the obverse of the $50 NBN depict Washington Crossing the Delaware (engraved by Alfred Jones) and Prayer for Victory (engraved by Luigi (Louis) Delnoce).
    12. ^ Vignettes on the obverse of the $100 NBN depict Battle of Lake Erie (engraved by Luigi (Louis) Delnoce) and an allegory Union (engraved by James Bannister).
    13. ^ The $500 NBN right side vignette depicts Arrival of the Sirius.
    14. ^ The $1,000 NBN right side vignette depicts The Capitol (engraved by James Smillie).
    15. ^ The price quoted by the Continental Bank Note Company (in 1863) to design and engrave both Constitution and Guerriere and De Soto on the Shores of the Mississippi - $150 each.[38]
    16. ^ In the Portraits section, the size of the images are not in correct proportion to one another.

    Notes

    1. ^ Newman, 2008, p. 9.
    2. ^ Newman, 2008, p. 184.
    3. ^ Toppan, Robert N. (1896). A Hundred Year of Bank Note Engraving (Report). American Bank Note Company. p. 5.
    4. ^ Newman, 2008, p. 186.
    5. ^ Fielding, 1917, p. 10.
    6. ^ Newman, 2008, p. 333.
    7. ^ Newman, 2008, p. 336.
    8. ^ Newman, 2008, p. 343.
    9. ^ Goss, Elbridge H. (1891). The Life of Colonel Paul Revere. 2. Joseph George Cupples. p. 412.
    10. ^ Stark, James H. (1882). Antique Views of Ye Towne of Boston. Photo-Electrotype Engraving Co. p. 217. paul revere engraving currency.
    11. ^ Newman, 2008, pp. 206–14.
    12. ^ Newman, 2008, p. 239.
    13. ^ Martello, Robert (2010). Midnight Ride, Industrial Dawn: Paul Revere and the Growth of American Enterprise. JHU Press. p. 432. ISBN 978-0-8018-9758-0.
    14. ^ Newman, 2008, p. 62.
    15. ^ Newman, 2008, p. 261.
    16. ^ Newman, 2008, pp. 69–73.
    17. ^ a b "History Timeline". Bureau of Engraving and Printing/Treasury Website. Archived from the original on 14 January 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    18. ^ a b Chase, Salmon P. (27 March 1863). "Proposals". The New York Times: 6.
    19. ^ Clark, S.M. (1864). Report to the Secretary of the Treasury from the First Division National Currency Bureau. pp. 12–13.
    20. ^ "Correspondence". Reports of Committees of the House of Representatives (First Session, Thirty-Eighth Congress). Government Printing Office: 237–238 and 311. 1864.
    21. ^ "Correspondence". Reports of Committees of the House of Representatives (First Session, Thirty-Eighth Congress). Government Printing Office: 295 and 311. 1864. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
    22. ^ "Contract between the American Bank Note Company and the United States of America". Reports of Committees of the House of Representatives (First Session, Thirty-Eighth Congress). Government Printing Office: 295–97. 1864.
    23. ^ "Contract between the Continental Bank Note Company and the United States of America". Reports of Committees of the House of Representatives (First Session, Thirty-Eighth Congress). Government Printing Office: 311–13. 1864.
    24. ^ Blake, 1908, p. 23.
    25. ^ "Contract between the American Bank Note Company and the United States of America". Reports of Committees of the House of Representatives (First Session, Thirty-Eighth Congress). Government Printing Office: 295–96. 1864.
    26. ^ Kravitz, 2012, p. 40–41.
    27. ^ Blake, 1908, p. 39.
    28. ^ a b Hessler, 1993, pp. 71–73.
    29. ^ Hessler, 1993, p. 201.
    30. ^ Hessler, 1993, p. 315.
    31. ^ a b c Hessler, 1993, p. 99–100.
    32. ^ Hessler, 2004, p. 144.
    33. ^ a b c Hessler, 1993, p. 180.
    34. ^ a b c d Hessler, 1993, p. 137.
    35. ^ Hessler, 1993, p. 95.
    36. ^ Hessler, 1993, p. 250.
    37. ^ Hessler, 1993, p. 290.
    38. ^ "Correspondence". Reports of Committees of the House of Representatives (First Session, Thirty-Eighth Congress). Government Printing Office: 275. 1864.
    39. ^ Hessler, 2004, p. 34.
    40. ^ a b Hessler, 2004, p. 223.
    41. ^ Hessler, 1993, p. 99.
    42. ^ Hessler, 2004, p. 36.
    43. ^ Hessler, 1993, p. 34.
    44. ^ a b c Hessler, 1993, p. 73.
    45. ^ Hessler, 1993, p. 164.
    46. ^ Hessler, 1993, p. 239.

    References


    NiNa.Az » Free Services » Wikipedia
    Art and engraving on United States banknotes Language Watch Edit In early 18th century Colonial America engravers began experimenting with copper plates as an alternative medium to wood Applied to the production of paper currency copper plate engraving allowed for greater detail and production during printing It was the transition to steel engraving that enabled banknote design and printing to rapidly advance in the United States during the 19th century Contents 1 Engraving and printing early American banknotes 2 Engraving and printing at the U S Treasury 3 National Bank Notes 3 1 Denomination set of first issue design National Bank Notes 3 2 Gallery of related artwork 4 Interest Bearing Notes 5 Other 6 Portraits 7 Footnotes 8 Notes 9 ReferencesEngraving and printing early American banknotes Edit Eight pence note 1778 engraved and printed by Paul Revere The first issue of government authorized paper currency in America was printed by the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1690 1 This first issue dated 10 December 1690 was printed from an engraved copper plate with four subjects to a sheet 2 The first engraver identified in archival records was John Coney who appears to have been paid 30 on 12 March 1703 3 to engrave three copper plates for the Massachusetts issue dated 21 November 1702 4 Given the many design similarities between the 1690 note and those engraved by Coney in 1702 there has been speculation that he may have engraved the earlier note If true he would be the first American to engrave on copper plates 5 Several historical figures with a background in engraving and printing were involved in the production of early American currency Benjamin Franklin began printing Province of Pennsylvania notes in 1729 6 took on a partner David Hall in 1749 7 and then left the currency printing business after the 1764 issue 8 Paul Revere both engraved and printed bank notes 9 10 for the Province and then the state of Massachusetts between 1775 and 1779 11 and the Province of New Hampshire in 1775 12 Revere s father Apollos Rivoire was John Coney s pupil 13 David Rittenhouse engraved some border designs for the 10 May 1775 Continental currency 14 and 25 March 1776 Colony of New Jersey 6 note 15 Francis Hopkinson does not appear to have done engraving but he is credited with the designs for border cuts emblems and mottos on three issues of Continental currency in 1778 1779 16 Engraving and printing at the U S Treasury EditThe first series of Federally issued United States banknotes was authorized by Congressional acts on 17 July 1861 12 Stat 259 and 5 August 1861 12 Stat 313 While the Demand Notes were issued from the United States Treasury they were engraved and printed elsewhere In 1861 in fact until the mid 1870s the Treasury Department lacked the facilities or infrastructure to engrave and print the bulk of it financial paper and therefore relied on external contracts with private bank note companies By means of a Congressional act dated 11 July 1862 12 Stat 532 the Secretary of the Treasury received authorization to purchase machinery and employ the staff necessary to manufacture currency at the Treasury It was not until 1877 19 Stat 353 that the Bureau of Engraving and Printing was given funding for labor paper transportation and other expenses with the provision that all work be conducted on site and for a price commensurate with that of the private bank note companies On 1 October 1877 the BEP took over the production of both United States Note and National Bank Note production 17 National Bank Notes Edit TO ARTISTS ENGRAVERS AND OTHERS Designs for National Currency Notes are hereby invited of the denominations of 5 10 20 50 100 500 and 1 000 to be issued under the Act of Congress authorizing a National Currency approved 25 February 1863 18 Salmon Chase Secretary of the Treasury placed this classified notice in late March 1863 Other than describe some of the required features of each note e g legal wording placement of Treasury signatures etc the only direction given to prospective applicants was that submissions must be original i e they cannot have ever been illustrated on U S currency and that the designs must be national in their character 18 It is uncertain how many proposals were submitted or what was involved in the selection process but the final decision was to draw heavily on the use of historic American images which adorn the Capitol Rotunda nb 1 The motivation for this selection was two fold educationally it would circulate images depicting important scenes from American history while at the same time enhancing the security of the note by involving highly complex engravings 20 By July 1863 contracts were signed with American Bank Note Company ABNCo and Continental Bank Note Company CBNCo which would later be absorbed by ABNCo to design engrave and begin printing National Bank Notes 21 ABNCo was contracted for the 20 50 and 100 denominations 22 CBNCo was contracted for the 5 and 10 denominations 23 and National Bank Note Company contracted for the designs for the 2 500 and 1 000 denominations 24 The contract descriptions addresses each denomination individually and specifies which image from the Capitol Rotunda should be used for the reverse and what type of vignettes should be on the obverse with specific names nb 2 The first National Bank Notes were issued on 21 December 1863 17 Denomination set of first issue design National Bank Notes Edit Art and engraving on National Bank Notes First Charter Period nb 3 Banknote Value series nb 4 Vignette Vignette information nb 5 1 Original Series The First National Bank Lebanon Indiana Pres John C Daily Cash Abram O Miller Concordia eng Charles Burt 28 Art Theodore August Liebler 29 Landing of the Pilgrims eng Charles Burt nb 6 art Edwin White 30 2 Series 1875 nb 7 The First National Bank Emporia Kansas Pres Harrison Cory Cross Cash Elliott Raper Holderman Stars and Stripes eng Luigi Louis Delnoce 31 5 Series 1875 nb 8 The Vineland National Bank Vineland New Jersey Pres Horatio N Greene Cash Willis T Virgil Landing of Columbus eng Unsure nb 9 art John Vanderlyn 10 Series 1875 nb 10 The First National Bank Bismarck North Dakota VP Henry Rinaldo Porter Cash O H Whitaker Franklin and Electricity eng Alfred Jones 33 DeSoto Discovering the Mississippi eng Frederick Girsch 34 art John Trumbull 20 Series 1875 The First National Bank Butte Montana Pres Andrew Jackson Davis Cash Emerson B Weirick Battle of Lexington eng Luigi Louis Delnoce 31 Art F O C Darley 35 Loyalty eng Alfred Jones 33 Baptism of Pocahontas eng Charles Burt 28 art John G Chapman 50 Series 1875 nb 11 The First National Bank Cleveland Ohio Pres James Barnett Cash Albert K Spencer Embarkation of the Pilgrims eng W W Rice 36 art Robert W Weir 100 Original Series nb 12 The Raleigh National Bank Raleigh North Carolina Pres William Horn Battle Cash Charles Francis Dewey Declaration of Independence eng Frederick Girsch 34 art John Trumbull 500 Original Series nb 13 The Appleton National Bank Lowell Massachusetts Pres John A Knowles Cash John F Kimball Civilization eng James David Smillie 37 Surrender of General Burgoyne eng Frederick Girsch 34 art John Trumbull 1 000 Series 1875 proof nb 14 The First National Bank Salem Massachusetts Scott Entering City of Mexico eng Alfred Jones 33 General George Washington Resigning His Commission eng Delnoce 31 amp Girsch 34 art John TrumbullGallery of related artwork Edit Landing of the Pilgrims Landing of Columbus DeSoto s Discovery of the Mississippi Baptism of Pocahontas Embarkation of the Pilgrims Signing of the Declaration of Independence Surrender of General Burgoyne Washington Resigning his CommissionInterest Bearing Notes EditArt and engraving on Interest Bearing Notes Banknote Value series Vignette Vignette information nb 5 10 One year 5 1864 Peace 50 Two year 5 1864 Caduceus eng Alfred Jones art John W Casilear 100 Two year 5 1864 Farmer and Mechanic In the Turret 1 000 One year 5 1863 Justice 1 000 Two year 5 1863 Guerriere and Constitution nb 15 5 000 One year 5 1863 The Altar of Liberty eng Luigi Louis DelnoceOther EditArt and engraving on Other Notes Banknote Value series Vignette Vignette information nb 5 10 Legal Tender 1880 Introduction of the Old World to the New 5 Legal Tender 1880 The Pioneer eng Gugler 500 Gold certificate 1882 EaglePortraits EditPortraits Banknote nb 16 Value series Portrait Vignette information nb 5 1 Legal Tender 1880 George Washington 2 Legal Tender 1880 Thomas Jefferson Eng Charles Burt 39 5 000 Gold certificate 1870 James Madison Eng Alfred Sealey 40 100 Silver certificate 1891 James Monroe Eng Luigi Louis Delnoce 41 500 Legal Tender 1869 John Quincy Adams Eng Charles Burt 42 10 000 Gold certificate 1875 Andrew Jackson Eng Alfred Sealey 40 500 Gold certificate 1870 Abraham Lincoln 5 000 4 Consol Bond 1877 Andrew Johnson 20 000 U S Funded Loan Bond 1891 Zachary Taylor 20 Legal Tender 1869 Alexander Hamilton Eng Charles Burt 43 0 50 Fractional currency Samuel Dexter 0 50 Fractional currency William Crawford Eng Charles Burt 44 0 25 Fractional currency Robert Walker Eng Charles Burt 44 0 10 Fractional currency William Meredith Eng Charles Burt 44 20 000 4 Consol Bond 1877 Salmon P Chase 20 Silver certificate 1886 Daniel Manning Eng Lorenzo Hatch 45 2 Silver certificate 1891 William Windom Eng William Phillips 46 Footnotes Edit Spencer M Clark the first Superintendent of the National Currency Bureau later the Bureau of Engraving and Printing claimed that the idea to use historic images from the capitol rotunda had been his suggestion to the Secretary in the winter of 1861 1862 but he was not acknowledged as the author of the proposal 19 This is a standard description for one note quoted verbatim For the obverse of the twenty dollar 20 notes there shall be engraved upon the left hand portion of the note a vignette representing the Battle of Lexington and on the opposite or right hand end of the note a copy of a symbolic design entitled Loyalty Between these two vignettes shall be engraved two legends as follows In the upper part of the space between the vignettes the following legend viz National currency This note is secured by the bonds of the United States deposited with the Treasurer at Washington together with the engraved fac similes of the signatures of the Treasurer of the United States and of the Register of the Treasury In the lower part of the space between the vignettes the following words The First National Bank of Washington D C will pay the bearer twenty dollars on demand at their office in the city of Washington D C and suitable blanks shall be left for the date and for the signature of the president and cashier of the association In the upper right hand corner of the note the figure 20 is to be engraved of suitable size in a white letter with black shade and a space to be left for imprinting the treasury seal upon the right hand end of the note the whole to be surrounded by a suitable border of alternate leaf and vine work and of tablets in which the figure 20 and the letters twenty shall be often repeated in different characters For the reverse of the twenty dollar 20 note there shall be engraved in a central elliptical vignette two and a half by five 2 by 5 inches a fac simile of Chapman s painting in the Capitol entitled Baptism of Pocahontas Above this vignette shall be engraved the legend expressing the uses of the note and below it the legend expressing the penalties for counterfeiting The words of these legends to be prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury At each end of the vignette oval spaces one by one and a half 1 by 1 inch shall be left For one of these spaces there shall be engraved a suitable die or bed plate for surface printing and a roll made therefrom after its approval by the Secretary of the Treasury of the national shield and for the other space the coat of arms of the State from which the note is to be issued These dies shall not be transferred to the note plates but twelve 12 transfers therefrom shall be made upon separate plates of steel and these with their dies amp c shall be delivered to the Comptroller of the Currency or held subject to his order as hereinbefore provided The words First National Bank shall be engraved above the central vignette and the words Washington D C shall be engraved below it the two lines so engraved to be between the vignette and the legends The corners shall be filled with proper counters indicating the denomination of the note and the interstices be filled with work of a character to add as much as practicable to the security of the note against counterfeiting the whole to be surrounded by a suitable border its exterior size to be the same as the obverse viz 3 by 7 inches 25 Anti counterfeiting devices of the period 1869 76 included embedding silk fibers as well as seen in the 2 and 5 examples the use of blue tinted paper 26 27 Each National Bank Note in addition to the engraved Treasury signatures has the signature of the bank President or Vice President and Cashier or Assistant Cashier a b c d eng is the engraver of the work art is the creator of an original work from which the engraving was derived It is possible that Burt was inspired by eng Joseph Andrews who in turn may have been emulating a painting by Peter F Rothermel In addition to Stars and Stripes the reverse of the 2 NBN has the vignette Sir Walter Raleigh Presenting Corn and Tobacco to the English engraved by Luigi Louis Delnoce Vignettes on the obverse of the 5 NBN depict Columbus in Sight of Land and Presentation of an Indian Princess to the Old World both engraved by Charles Burt At least three different issued engravings were prepared by James Bannister Louis Delnoce and Walter Shirlaw 32 The front right vignette on the 10 NBN is Liberty and Progress designed by Walter Shirlaw engraved by G F C Smillie Vignettes on the obverse of the 50 NBN depict Washington Crossing the Delaware engraved by Alfred Jones and Prayer for Victory engraved by Luigi Louis Delnoce Vignettes on the obverse of the 100 NBN depict Battle of Lake Erie engraved by Luigi Louis Delnoce and an allegory Union engraved by James Bannister The 500 NBN right side vignette depicts Arrival of the Sirius The 1 000 NBN right side vignette depicts The Capitol engraved by James Smillie The price quoted by the Continental Bank Note Company in 1863 to design and engrave both Constitution and Guerriere and De Soto on the Shores of the Mississippi 150 each 38 In the Portraits section the size of the images are not in correct proportion to one another Notes Edit Newman 2008 p 9 Newman 2008 p 184 Toppan Robert N 1896 A Hundred Year of Bank Note Engraving Report American Bank Note Company p 5 Newman 2008 p 186 Fielding 1917 p 10 Newman 2008 p 333 Newman 2008 p 336 Newman 2008 p 343 Goss Elbridge H 1891 The Life of Colonel Paul Revere 2 Joseph George Cupples p 412 Stark James H 1882 Antique Views of Ye Towne of Boston Photo Electrotype Engraving Co p 217 paul revere engraving currency Newman 2008 pp 206 14 Newman 2008 p 239 Martello Robert 2010 Midnight Ride Industrial Dawn Paul Revere and the Growth of American Enterprise JHU Press p 432 ISBN 978 0 8018 9758 0 Newman 2008 p 62 Newman 2008 p 261 Newman 2008 pp 69 73 a b History Timeline Bureau of Engraving and Printing Treasury Website Archived from the original on 14 January 2014 Retrieved 7 July 2014 Cite journal requires journal help a b Chase Salmon P 27 March 1863 Proposals The New York Times 6 Clark S M 1864 Report to the Secretary of the Treasury from the First Division National Currency Bureau pp 12 13 Correspondence Reports of Committees of the House of Representatives First Session Thirty Eighth Congress Government Printing Office 237 238 and 311 1864 Correspondence Reports of Committees of the House of Representatives First Session Thirty Eighth Congress Government Printing Office 295 and 311 1864 Retrieved 6 July 2014 Contract between the American Bank Note Company and the United States of America Reports of Committees of the House of Representatives First Session Thirty Eighth Congress Government Printing Office 295 97 1864 Contract between the Continental Bank Note Company and the United States of America Reports of Committees of the House of Representatives First Session Thirty Eighth Congress Government Printing Office 311 13 1864 Blake 1908 p 23 Contract between the American Bank Note Company and the United States of America Reports of Committees of the House of Representatives First Session Thirty Eighth Congress Government Printing Office 295 96 1864 Kravitz 2012 p 40 41 Blake 1908 p 39 a b Hessler 1993 pp 71 73 Hessler 1993 p 201 Hessler 1993 p 315 a b c Hessler 1993 p 99 100 Hessler 2004 p 144 a b c Hessler 1993 p 180 a b c d Hessler 1993 p 137 Hessler 1993 p 95 Hessler 1993 p 250 Hessler 1993 p 290 Correspondence Reports of Committees of the House of Representatives First Session Thirty Eighth Congress Government Printing Office 275 1864 Hessler 2004 p 34 a b Hessler 2004 p 223 Hessler 1993 p 99 Hessler 2004 p 36 Hessler 1993 p 34 a b c Hessler 1993 p 73 Hessler 1993 p 164 Hessler 1993 p 239 References Edit Money portal Blake George Herbert 1908 United States paper money George H Blake p 23 Fielding Mantle 1917 American Engravers Upon Copper and Steel Burt Franklin Friedberg Arthur L Friedberg Ira S 2013 Paper Money of the United States A Complete Illustrated Guide With Valuations 20th ed Coin amp Currency Institute ISBN 978 0 87184 520 7 Hessler Gene 1993 The Engraver s Line An Encyclopedia of Paper Money amp Postage Stamp Art BNR Press ISBN 0 931960 36 3 Hessler Gene 2004 U S Essay Proof and Specimen Notes 2 ed BNR Press ISBN 0 931960 62 2 Newman Eric P 2008 The Early Paper Money of America 5 ed Krause Publications Stauffer David M 1907 American Engravers Upon Copper and Steel The Grolier Club of the City of New York Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php 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